Active Passive voice in Marathi -Style1

***************************************************************
Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
***************************************************************



In English we have two voices. "Active voice" and "Passive voice". In Marathi such "voice" is called "प्रयोग"(prayog).
There are three types of "प्रयोग"(prayog) in Marathi.
कर्तरी प्रयोग ( kartarI prayog )
कर्मणी प्रयोग ( karmaNI prayog )
भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog )


कर्तरी प्रयोग ( kartarI prayog ) refers to a sentence construction in which the verb changes according to the subject, which is comparable to the active voice in English.
कर्मणी प्रयोग ( karmaNI prayog ) refers to a sentence construction in which the verb changes according to the object, which is like the passive voice in English. 
भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog ) refers to a sentence construction in which the verb does not change according to either the subject or the object.

Normal sentences in present and future tense in Marathi are of कर्तरी प्रयोग ( kartarI prayog ) i.e active voice; because verb form is decided as per gender and multiplicity of कर्ता(kartA) i.e. doer of action.

As we have seen before, in simple past tense, for सकर्मक क्रियापद (sakarmak kriyApad ) i.e. for verbs needing कर्म (karm) i.e noun; verb form is created as per gender and multiplicity of noun. 
So simple past tense sentences with सकर्मक क्रियापद (sakarmak kriyApad ) are examples of कर्मणी प्रयोग ( karmaNI prayog ) i.e. passive voice 

But like in English, in Marathi same sentence can be converted from one voice to another and still convey same meaning. 

In English both voices are very common in all the tenses. Unlike in Marathi; कर्मणी प्रयोग ( karmaNI prayog ) and भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog ) are not common in present and future tense. They are used only in peculiar cases. And rules for sentence formation can look odd. 

So, you may skip this lesson altogether without any loss on your Marathi learning. 

Those who wish to read further about "प्रयोग"(prayog), please note that this lesson just gives basic about "प्रयोग"(prayog). There are many more grammatical details. Do refer grammar books if you wish to study it in depth. 

Take any simple sentence in present tense it will be in कर्तरी प्रयोग ( kartarI prayog ).
So no need to explain any more about it. 

To convert it into कर्मणी प्रयोग ( karmaNI prayog ) sentence formation is as follows :- 
form of कर्ता(kartA) with preposition कडून(kaDUn) 
कर्म (karm) i.e. noun
Simple past tense form of main verb as per gender and multiplicity of कर्म (karm) i.e. noun
Form of verb जा (jA) as per given tense and gender , multiplicity of कर्म (karm) i.e. noun 
माझ्याकडून (mAjhyAkaDUn)
आंबा (AMbA)
खाल्ला (khAllA)
जातो (jAto)

Consider active  voice statement "I eat mango" ->  मी आंबा खातो ( mI AMbA khAto ) 
here कर्ता(kartA) is मी(mI)
कर्म (karm) is आंबा (AMbA) which is masculine-singular
verb is खा (khA)
So,
form of कर्ता(kartA) with preposition कडून(kaDUn) is माझ्याकडून (mAjhyAkaDUn)
Simple past tense form of main verb खा (khA) for masculine-singular is खाल्ला (khAllA)
As sentence is in simple present tense, simple present tense form of verb जा (jA) for masculine-singular is जातो (jAto) 

So full sentence becomes :- 
माझ्याकडून आंबा खाल्ला जातो ( mAjhyAkaDUn AMbA khAllA jAto )
which is similar to English sentence "Mango is eaten by me".

If active sentence is in future i.e."I will eat mango" i.e. मी आंबा खाईन ( mI AMbA khAIn ) 
Then to make it passive voice, only difference we need this time is Form of verb जा (jA) in future tense for masculine-singular which is जाईल ( jAIl ) 
So full sentence becomes
माझ्याकडून आंबा खाल्ला जाईल( mAjhyAkaDUn AMbA khAllA jAIl )
which is similar to English sentence "Mango will be eaten by me".

Generally such sentences are used when doer of action is unknown or assumed or too familiar to be mentioned. 

e.g. 
If rules are observed, we all will be happy  ->नियम पाळले गेले तर सगळे सुखी होऊ (niyam pALale gele tar sagaLe sukhI hoU ) 

Few examples given below. Try to fit them in above rule and revise the concept.
1) He plays cricket -> तो क्रिकेट खेळतो ( to krikeT kheLato )
Cricket is played by him -> त्याच्याकडून क्रिकेट खेळले जाते ( tyAchyAkaDUn krikeT kheLale jAte  )

( Note :- क्रिकेट( krikeT ) is neuter-singular word in Marathi.  ) 

2) He will play cricket -> तो क्रिकेट खेळेल( to krikeT kheLel)
Cricket will be played by him -> त्याच्याकडून क्रिकेट खेळले जाईल ( tyAchyAkaDUn krikeT kheLale jAIl  )

3) He will be playing cricket -> तो क्रिकेट खेळत असेल ( to krikeT kheLat asel )
Cricket will be being played by him -> त्याच्याकडून क्रिकेट खेळले जात असेल ( tyAchyAkaDUn krikeT kheLale jAt asel )

4) He played cricket ->  
Note such sentence is by default in passive voice in Marathi 
But by literally following above rule passive 
Cricket was played by him -> त्याच्याकडून क्रिकेट खेळले गेले( tyAchyAkaDUn krikeT kheLale gele )


Passive voice style-2
There is another style in which passive voice sentences can be formed. Foe more details please refer lesson
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2013/05/active-passive-voice-in-marathi-style2.html


भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog ) 
Its structure can be generalized as follows :- 

form of कर्ता(kartA) with preposition कडून(kaDUn) 
form of कर्म (karm) i.e. noun with preposition ला(lA)  
Simple past tense form of main verb for third person neuter singular
Form of verb जा (jA) as per given tense and third person neuter singular
माझ्याकडून (mAjhyAkaDUn)
आंब्याला (AMbyAlA)
खाल्ले (khAlle)
जाते(jAte)



Consider active  voice statement "I eat mango" ->  मी आंबा खातो ( mI AMbA khAto ) 
here कर्ता(kartA) is मी(mI)
कर्म (karm) is आंबा (AMbA) which is masculine-singular
verb is खा (khA)
So,
form of कर्ता(kartA) with preposition कडून(kaDUn) is माझ्याकडून (mAjhyAkaDUn)
form of कर्म (karm) i.e. noun with preposition ला(lA) is आंब्याला (AMbyAlA)
Simple past tense form of main verb खा (khA) for third person neuter singular is खाल्ले (khAlle)
As sentence is in simple present tense, simple present tense form of verb जा (jA) for third person neuter singular is जाते(jAte)

So full sentence becomes :- 
माझ्याकडून आंब्याला खाल्ले जाते ( mAjhyAkaDUn AMbyAlA khAlle jAte)

Few examples given below. Try to fit them in above rule and revise the concept.

Ram rides bicycle -> राम सायकल चालवतो  (rAm sAyakal chAlavato )
भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog ) form :- 
रामकडून सायकलला चालवले जाते (rAmakaDUn sAyakalalA chAlavale jAte)

Ram will ride cycle -> राम सायकल चालवेल (rAm sAyakal chAlavel)
भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog ) form :- 
रामकडून सायकलला चालवले जाईल  (rAmakaDUn sAyakalalA chAlavale jAIl )

Ram will be riding cycle ->राम सायकल चालवत असेल  (rAm sAyakal chAlavat asel )
भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog ) form :- 
रामकडून सायकलला चालवले जात असेल  (rAmakaDUn sAyakalalA chAlavale jAt asel )

Adding preposition to verb in passive voice
We have already seen grammar for adding preposition to verb.
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/prepositions-with-verbs.html
Same rules will apply to verb जा (jA) in कर्मणी प्रयोग ( karmaNI prayog ) and
भावे प्रयोग ( bhAve prayog). The form of main verb is created as per above rules. 
e.g. 
In active voice "while giving" -> देताना ( detAnA  ) 
In other two voices i.e. "while being given" -> दिले जाताना (dile jAtAnA )

In active voice "for opening" -> उघडण्यासाठी ( ughaDaNyAsAThI )
In other two voices i.e. "for being opened" -> उघडले जाण्यासाठी (ughaDale jANyAsAThI )

In active voice "after killing" -> मारल्यानंतर (mAralyAnaMtar )
In other two voices i.e. "after being killed" ->मारला गेल्यानंतर ( mAralA gelyAnaMtar )


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzU5Q-TvQ40





***************************************************************
Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
***************************************************************

2 comments:

  1. thank you sir for making such type of website

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Jalandar Rahul,
      You are welcome !! I would like to know more about your Marathi learning and you experience with my website.
      So it will be great if you could mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete