Conjunctions in Marathi - Part 2 As,As well as,Or, Neither, Nor, If,in case, provided

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7) As :- जसा( jasA)
Conjunction "As" is used in multiple ways. 
Main use of "As" is to indicate the way thing happen. So Marathi word is जसा( jasA). Depending on gender and multiplicity of object form willl change
जसा-जशी-जसे-जसे-जश्या-जशी ( jasA-jashI-jase-jase-jashyA-jashI) as per आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule

e.g.
As you wish, my lord :- जशी आपली इच्छा, साहेब ( jashI ApalI ichChA, sAheb )
Do it same way as he is doing -> तो जसे करतो आहे तसेच कर (to jase karato Ahe tasech kar )

For other usage of "As" refer the section of frequently used conjunction for that usage. e.g. For usage of "As" as "because", refer previous lesson for conjunction "because".
8) As well as :- तसेच ( tasech),आणि-सुद्धा( ANi-suddhA )
He as well as me  :- तो तसेच मी ( to tasech mI ), 
                             तो आणि मी सुद्धा ( to ANi mI suddhA )
She sang as well as danced :- ती नाचली तसेच गायली ( tI nAchalI tasech gAyalI)
                              ती नाचली आणि गायली सुद्धा ( tI nAchalI ANi gAyalI suddhA)



9) Or :- किंवा ( kiMvA )
He or me :- तो किंवा मी ( to kiMvA mI )
Do or die :- करा किंवा मरा ( karA kiMvA marA )

10) "Nor","Neither-Nor"
There is no concept of "Nor","Neither-Nor" in Marathi. 
Neither-nor statement should be converted to alternate statement using "and" ;"both","as well as" and then translated accordingly in Marathi.
e.g. 
"Neither he nor me were interested" -> "He and me both were not interested" -> तो आणि मी दोघेही इच्छुक नव्हतो ( to ANi mI doghehI ichChuk navhato)

11) if / in case /if only / provided  :- जर-तर ( jar-tar )
If-then statements are discussed separately in Sentence using "If-Then"


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PAYJrRF5OE

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Conjunctions in Marathi - Part 1 And,But,Because,So,That,Although,Though,Still,Yet

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Conjunctions are words that join two or more words or phrases or clauses.
Here we will learn frequently use English conjunctions and their Marathi synonyms.

We will start with frequently use conjunctions and then move to less used ones

1) And :- आणि ( ANi ), व (v)
He and me -> तो आणि/व मी  (to ANi/v mI )  
Milk and sugar -> दूध आणि/व साखर  (dUdh ANi/v sAkhar )  

Do note that व (v) is used only in formal written Marathi. आणि ( ANi ) is used in formal as well as casual conversation

2) But :- पण(paN),  परंतु (paraMtu)
I want to buy but shop is closed -> मला खरेदी करायची आहे पण/परंतु दुकान बंद आहे (malA kharedI karAyachI Ahe paN/paraMtu dukAn baMd Ahe )

He was clever but he did not work hard -> तो हुशार होता पण/परंतु त्याने परिश्रम केले नाहीत (to hushAr hotA paN/paraMtu tyAne parishram kele nAhIt )

Do note that परंतु (paraMtu) is used only in formal written Marathi. पण(paN) is used in formal as well as casual conversation

3) Although, Though, Yet, Still,Even if, Even though :- तरीही (tarIhI). 
All three conjugations can be be used to form similat type of senteces
e.g. "Though I had warned him, he opened the box" 
       "He opened box, although I had warned him"
       "I had warned him, still he opened the box" 

Marathi sentence structure is similar to third one i.e. using "still"
"precondition" तरीही (tarIhI) "post condition"

To warn -> इशारा देणे ( ishArA deNe )
I had warned him, still he opened the box -> मी त्याला इशारा दिला होता तरीही त्याने खोका उघडला (mI tyAlA ishArA dilA hotA tarIhI tyAne khokA ughaDalA)

He helped her still she insulted him -> त्याने तिला मदत केली तरीही तीने त्याचा अपमान केला ( tyAne tilA madat kelI tarIhI tIne tyAchA apamAn kelA)

4) Because :- कारण(kAraN)
I did not come yesterday, because I was sick :-  मी काल आलो नाही, कारण मी आजारी होतो  ( mI kAl Alo nAhI, kAraN mI AjArI hoto )

Car will not start because there is no petrol in tank:- गाडी चालू होणार नाही, कारण टाकीत पेट्रोल नाही ( gADI chAlU hoNAr nAhI, kAraN TAkIt peTrol nAhI )

5) so :- म्हणून (mhaNUn )

I was sick so I did not come yesterday  :-  मी आजारी होतो म्हणून मी काल आलो नाही ( mI AjArI hoto mhaNUn mI kAl Alo nAhI )

There is no petrol in tank so car will not start :- टाकीत पेट्रोल नाही म्हणून गाडी चालू होणार नाही ( TAkIt peTrol nAhI mhaNUn gADI chAlU hoNAr nAhI )

6) That :- की ( kI)
He told her that he is happy :- त्याने तीला सांगितले की तो खूप खूष आहे (tyAne tIlA sAMgitale kI to khUp khUSh Ahe )

I am sure that we will succeed :- मला खात्री आहे की आपण यशस्वी होऊ  (malA khAtrI Ahe kI ApaN yashasvI hoU )



Listen examples in this lesson at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsuP47u2Ras

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Using "To mean". How to ask meaning in Marathi

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In English we use verb "To Mean" e.g. "What does it mean", "What is its meaning". "I did not mean it" etc.
In Marathi "meaning" is अर्थ(arth).

In Marathi the the translation of sentence "what does it mean" is actually similar to translation of "what is its meaning"

1)What does it mean -> What is its meaning -> त्याचा अर्थ काय (tyAchA arth kAy)

2)What does that signboard mean -> What is meaning of that sign board ->त्या पाटीचा अर्थ काय ( tyA pATIchA arth kAy )

3)What did his speech mean -> What was meaning of his speech -> त्याच्या भाषणाचा अर्थ काय होता (tyAchyA bhAShaNAchA arth kAy hotA)

When you are asking meaning of some word you can ask it in short using म्हणजे काय (mhaNaje kAy ) as follows :-

What does "encyclopedia" mean -> "encyclopedia" म्हणजे काय (mhaNaje kAy ) 
What does "sundar" mean in Marathi -> मराठीमधे सुंदर म्हणजे काय (marAThImadhe suMdar mhaNaje kAy )

In English we also say "I did not mean it", "He did not mean insulting you". Such sentences are said bit differently in Marathi.
I did mean it -> My saying meant this -> माझ्या बोलण्याचा अर्थ हा होता (mAjhyA bolaNyAchA arth hA hotA)
I did not mean it -> My saying did not mean this -> माझ्या बोलण्याचा अर्थ हा नव्हता (mAjhyA bolaNyAchA arth hA navhatA)

When we use "To mean" to indicate purpose, it is said differently in Marathi. 
Purpose in Marathi is उद्देश(uddesh)

"He did not mean hurting you" -> His purpose was not to hurt you -> त्याचा उद्देश तुम्हाला दुखवण्याचा नव्हता (tyAchA uddesh tumhAlA dukhavaNyAchA navhatA)
I meant to insult him -> My purpose was to insult him ->माझा उद्देश त्याचा अपमान करण्याचा होता (majhA uddesh tyAchA apamAn karaNyAchA hotA)

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5rO8iNeWV0

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"To have" to indicate possession and relation

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To indicate possession of something we say "I have a car", "I have a bungalow" etc.
In Marathi such sentences are formed as follows :-
सामन्यरूप(sAmanyarUp) form of my/his/ ‘s etc.
जवळ(javaL)/
कडे(kaDe )
noun
form of “to be” i.e. असणे (asaNe) as per tense and
gender, multiplicity of noun
माझ्या (mAjhyA)
जवळ(javaL)/
कडे(kaDe )
गाडी (gADI)
आहे (Ahe)



I have a car -> माझ्या जवळ/कडे गाडी आहे (mAjhyA javaL/kaDe gADIAhe)
I have 10 cars -> माझ्या जवळ/कडे १० गाड्या आहेत (mAjhyA javaL/kaDe 10 gADyA Ahet)

I had a car -> माझ्या जवळ/कडे गाडी होती (mAjhyA javaL/kaDe hotI )
I had 10 cars -> माझ्या जवळ/कडे १० गाड्या होत्या(mAjhyA javaL/kaDe 10 gADyA  hotyA)
Anup will have watch -> अनुप जवळ/कडे घड्याळ असेल (anup javaL/kaDe ghaDyAL asel)

I do not have car ->  माझ्या जवळ/कडे गाडी नाही (mAjhyA javaL/kaDe nAhI)
I did not have car ->  माझ्या जवळ/कडे गाडी नव्हती (mAjhyA javaL/kaDe navhatI)

We also use "to have" to indicate relationships.
e.g. I have 2 brothers. I have 3 maternal uncles. etc.

In such sentences in Marathi we use preposition "To" i.e.ला(lA)
e.g.
I have 2 brothers -> मला दोन भाऊ आहेत (malA don bhAU Ahet )
He has three paternal uncles -> त्याला तीन काका आहेत (tyAlA tIn kAkA Ahet)
Ravi had 2 kids -> रवीला दोन मुले होती (ravIlA don mule hotI)
He does not have brother -> त्याला भाऊ नाही (tyAlA bhAU nAhI)
She did not have any relatives -> तिला कोणीही नातेवाईक नव्हते  (tilA koNIhI nAtevAIk navhate )

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsn8v50TTW8
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Generalizing words - somewhere somehow anything anybody etc.तरी(tarI) -ही(hI)

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Consider the conversation 1) 
"Who did this mess ?"
"Someone did it?"

conversation 2) 
"How will you do it?"

"I will manage it somehow"

When we are not sure about the thing we say "somehow", "somewhere", "anybody" etc.

In Marathi also such words are present. 
In words like "somehow", "somewhere" we prefixed "some" to words like "how","where" etc. For such phrases in Marathi we append तरी(tarI).

In words like "anyhow", "anywhere" we prefixed "any" to words like "how","where" etc. For such phrases in Marathi we append ही(hI).
Below table lists such words. 
While adding these prefixes there is little change in main word. such words are highlighted in red. 


who
कोण (koN)
someone
कोणीतरी (koNItarI)
anyone
कोणीही (koNIhI)
when
कधी (kadhI)
sometime
कधीतरी (kadhItarI)
anytime
कधीही (kadhIhI)
when
केव्हा (kevhA)
sometime
केव्हातरी (kevhAtarI)
anytime
केव्हाही (kevhAhI)
where
कुठे (kuThe)
somewhere
कुठेतरी (kuThetarI)
anywhere
कुठेही (kuThehI)
what
काय (kAy)
something
काहीतरी (kAhItarI)
anything
काहीही (kAhIhI)
how much /
how many
किती (kitI)
many
कितीतरी (kitItarI)
any
कितीही (kitIhI)
how
कसा (kasA)
somehow
कसातरी (kasAtarI)
anyhow
कसाही (kasAhI)
which
कुठला (kuThalA)
someone/
something/
some
कुठलातरी (kuThalAtarI)
any
कुठलाही (kuThalAhI)
which
कोणता (koNatA)
someone/
something
कोणतातरी (koNatAtarI)
any
कोणताही (koNatAhI)


To use preposition with these words, preposition is appended to main word and then तरी(tarI) or ही(hI) is used.
e.g.
someone -> कोणीतरी (koNItarI)
to someone -> कोणाला तरी (koNAlA tarI)

some -> कुठलातरी (kuThalAtarI)
in which box -> कुठल्या खोक्यात  (kuThalyA khokyAt )
into some box -> कुठल्या तरी खोक्यात  (kuThalyA tarI khokyAt )

Full sentence examples :-
Call someone -> कोणाला तरी बोलव (koNAlA tarI bolav
Call anyone -> कोणालाही बोलव (koNAlAhI bolav)

I reached there somehow -> मी तिकडे कसातरी पोचलो (mI tikaDe kasAtarI pochalo)
I will reach there anyhow -> मी तिकडे कसाही पोचेन (mI tikaDe kasAhI pochen )

He has gone somewhere from morning -> तो सकाळपासून कुठेतरी गेला आहे (to sakALapAsUn kuThetarI gelA Ahe)
He is not ready to go anywhere -> तो कुठेही जायला तयार नाही (to kuThehI jAyalA tayAr nAhI )


Another usage  तरी(tarI)
1) In Marathi when तरी(tarI) is used as separate word it means "still" or "even though". Example will make it clear. 

I told him, still he ate it -> मी त्याला सांगितले  तरी त्याने हे खाल्ले (mI tyAlA sAMgitale, tarI tyAne he khAlle )
Why she pressed button. Though she was told not to do ->
तीने बटण का दाबले? तरी तीला सांगितले होते करू नकोस   (tIne baTaN kA dAbale? tarI tIlA sAMgitale hote karU nakos )

2) When appended with a noun/pronoun तरी(tarI) means "at least" 
At least he came -> तो तरी आला (to tarI AlA)
Finish work at least by tomorrow -> उद्यापर्यंत तरी काम संपव (udyAparyMt tarI kAm saMpav)
She is average at least; others are fool -> ती साधारण तरी आहे, बाकीचे मूर्ख आहेत (tI sAdhAraN tarI Ahe, bAkIche mUrkh Ahet )
You should have told me at least -> तू मला तरी सांगायला हवे होतेस(tU malA tarI saMgAyalA have hotes)

Another usage of ही(hI)
When appended with a noun/pronoun ही(hI) indicated "also"/"even"

I will also come -> मीही येईन  (mIhI yeIn)
This program is tomorrow also -> हा कार्यक्रम उद्याही आहे (hA kAryakram udyAhI Ahe )
He did not even tell it to me ->त्याने मला हे सांगितलेही नाही (tyAne malA he sAMgitalehI nAhI )


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hx3qIPd2Uo4



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To emphasize word using-च(ch)-in Marathi

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Consider sentence "I will finish it tomorrow". Now if you want to emphasize about the time you will say "I will finish it tomorrow it self".
Consider sentence "He told me that he got lottery". Now to emphasize on who told you, you will say "He himself told me he got lottery".
Sometimes Indian tend to create such sentences as "He only told me", "You only asked me close door" etc.

In Marathi we use च(ch) to emphasize on word. च(ch) is one-size-fits-all kind of suffix. You can add it कर्ता (kartA) i.e. doer of action, कर्म (karm) noun, verb or any other word which you want to emphasize.

Let us see examples :- 
I myself did it -> मी हे केले (mIch he kele)
I did this itself -> मी हे केले (mI hech kele)

I will come tomorrow itself -> मी उद्या येईन (mI udyAch yeIn)
I will surely come -> मी येईन (mI yeInach)

I have seen India only -> मी भारत बघितला आहे (mI bhAratach baghitalA Ahe)
Is this the result of my efforts ? -> माझ्या मेहनतीचा हा परिणाम का (mAjhyA mehanatIchA hAch pariNAm kA)

He kept on talking -> तो बोलत राहिला (to bolatach rAhilA)
He kept on staring that car ->तो ती गाडी बघत राहिला (to tI gADI baghatach rAhilA)

I want only sedan car -> मला सिडान कार पाहिजे  (malA siDAn kArach pAhije )

I must go there -> मला तिथे जायला पाहिजे (malA tithe jAyalAch pAhije )

Why just me ? -> मी का (mIch kA)


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=126z9r_DN5M


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Type Marathi in Roman Marathi transliteration

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Throughout this blog I have used transliteration of Marathi sentences in Roman script.

I have used "Baraha" software for this. It was available for free download and use.

If you do not want to download software then you can use Google's transliteration service
Select Marathi Language in drop-down.
or
http://www.quillpad.in/index.html#.UlEAV4aw3L8

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Phrase "To Make Someone do something"

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In English we use sentences like "I will make him work", "That joke made him laugh" etc.
So we use phrase here as "to make one do something".

In Marathi we say it मी करायला लावीन ( mI karAyalA lAvIn ), मी बोलायला लावीनmI bolAyalA lAvIn ).

Sentence structure is
Subject i.e. कर्ता (kartA )
Object or noun with preposition “To”
Verb+आयला (AyalA)
Verb form of  लावणे (lAvaNe) as per tense
मी (mI)

त्याला (tyAlA)
बोलायला(bolAyalA)
लावीन(lAvIn)


Needless to say, Form of लावणे (lAvaNe) follows the general rules of sentence formation. i.e. 
For present and future tense the form of  is as per subject i.e. कर्ता 
For past tense the form of लावणे (lAvaNe) is as per noun i.e. कर्म 
For past tense अकर्मक verb ( i.e. the verb that does not require noun) form will be लावले ( lAvale )
etc.

Examples :- 
I make him say ->मी त्याला बोलायला लावतो ( mI tyAlA bolAyalA lAvato )
I will make him say -> मी त्याला बोलायला लावीन ( mI tyAlA bolAyalA lAvIn )
I made him say ->  मी त्याला बोलायला लावले ( mI tyAlA bolAyalA lAvale)


He made me work -> त्याने मला काम करायला लावले (tyAne malA kAm karAyalA lAvale)
He makes me work -> तो मला काम करायला लावतो (to malA kAm karAyalA lAvato )
He will make me work -> तो मला काम करायला लावेल ( to malA kAm karAyalA lAvel )


That joke made me laugh -> त्या विनोदाने मला हसायला लावले (tyA vinodAne malA hasAyalA lAvale)

Peter made Mary eat mango-> पीटरने मेरीला आंबा खायला लावला ( pITarane merIlA AMbA khAyalA lAvalA
Peter made Mary eat mangoes-> पीटरने मेरीला आंबे खायला लावले ( pITarane merIlA AMbe khAyalA lAvale )

Listen examples in this lesson at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eEAYBT6KXIU

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