Sentences with person or living things as object

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In the sentences we had seen so far the object in the sentence i.e. नाम was mostly inanimate objects. like box, mango, pen etc. What if the the object i.e. नाम was a person a living thing. 
There is little difference in way such sentences are formed. 

e.g. First consider sentences with non-living things

I see dog ->  मी कुत्रा बघतो (mI kutrA baghato)
I saw dog ->  मी कुत्रा बघितला (mI kutrA baghitalA)
I will see dog -> मी कुत्रा बघीन (mI kutrA baghIn)

Now form similar sentences where you are talking about a boy named Kaushik. You will form these sentences as 
I see Kaushik ->  मी कौशिक बघतो (mI kaushik baghato)
I saw Kaushik ->  मी कौशिक बघितला (mI kaushik baghitalA)
I will see Kaushik -> मी कौशिक बघीन (mI kaushik baghIn)

Point 1) This way is grammatically correct but that not a natural way in Marathi. When talking about "person or persons"; we use "Preposition To" with object
i.e. ला(lA) with the proper noun OR corresponding form of pronoun 
( Preposition "To" is thoroughly discussed in lessons
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/preposition-to.html 
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/working-with-nouns-prepositions.html
)

This is similar to English. In English we do NOT say "I see he" but we say "I see him". 

So the sentences will be 
I see Kaushik ->  मी कौशिकला बघतो (mI kaushikalA baghato)
I will see Kaushik -> मी कौशिकला बघीन (mI kaushikalA baghIn)
I see him ->  मी त्याला बघतो (mI tyAlA baghato)
He sees me ->  तो मला बघतो (to malA baghato)
I will see him -> मी त्याला बघीन (mI tyAlA  baghIn)
He is shaking her -> तो तीला हलवतो आहे (to tIlA halavato Ahe)

Point 2a) In simple past sentences in such cases verb form will always be neuter-singular
I saw Kaushik ->  मी कौशिकला बघितले (mI kaushik baghitale)
I saw her ->  मी तीला  बघितले (mI tIlA baghitale)
He shook students ->  त्याने विद्यार्थ्यांना हलवले ( tyAne vidyArthyAMnA halavale )

So though object is masculine and feminine; singular or plural; verb from was always-neuter singular.

Point 2b) As you know simple-past tense is basis of perfect tenses. So when you will create such sentences; verb will be neuter-singular.
I have seen Kaushik ->  मी कौशिकला बघितले आहे (mI kaushik baghitale Ahe)
I had seen her ->  मी तीला  बघितले होते (mI tIlA baghitale hote)
He will have shaken students ->  त्याने विद्यार्थ्यांना हलवलेले असेल  ( tyAne vidyArthyAMnA halavalele asel ) 


So lets revise concept by seeing one sentence in all tenses
I have highlighted the example of rule 2a and 2b.

He shakes friends तो मित्रांना हलवतो (to mitrAMnA halavato)
He is shaking friends तो मित्रांना हलवत आहे (to mitrAMnA halavat Ahe)
He has shaken friends त्याने मित्रांना हलवले आहे (tyAne mitrAMnA halavale Ahe)
He shook friends         त्याने मित्रांना हलवले (tyAne mitrAMnA halavale)
He was shaking friends तो मित्रांना हलवत होता (to mitrAMnA halavat hotA)
He had shaken friends त्याने मित्रांना हलवले होते (tyAne mitrAMnA halavale hote)
He will shake friends तो मित्रांना हलवेल (to mitrAMnA halavel)
He will be shaking friends तो मित्रांना हलवत असेल (to mitrAMnA halavat asel)
He will have shaken friends त्याने मित्रांना हलवलेले असेल (tyAne mitrAMnA halavalele asel)

you push me         तू मला ढकलतोस (tU malA Dhakalatos)
you are pushing me तू मला ढकलत आहेस (tU malA Dhakalat Ahes)
you have pushed me तू मला ढकलले आहेस  (tU malA Dhakalale Ahes )
you pushed me         तू मला ढकललेस (tU malA Dhakalales)
you were pushing me तू मला ढकलत होतास (tU malA Dhakalat hotAs)
you had pushed me तू मला ढकलले होते (tU malA Dhakalale hote)
you will push me तू मला ढकलशील (tU malA DhakalashIl)
you will be pushing me  तू मला ढकलत असशील (tU malA Dhakalat asashIl)
you will have pushed me तू मला ढकललेले असेल (tU malA Dhakalalele asel)

Listen this lesson online at 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPIitfZ1UgY
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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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16 comments:

  1. Hi,
    In d first 3 sentences why dog is considered as non living.

    Thanks
    PG

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. by "living" I mean persons or human beings ..... For other living creatures you can create sentence as of style 2 e.g. मी कुत्र्याला ढकलले/हलवले etc. but it may not be used quite often. It is personal choice.

      Delete
  2. Hi Kaushik,

    One more doubt in the above sentence...
    you shook me
    तू मला ढकललेस

    Why it is ढकललेस and not ढकलले, because as per the rule we should use neuter singular for simple past tense.

    Many Thanks
    PG

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. For sentences with "तू" in simple past tense extra "स" is appended to verb form.तू ढकललेस , तू हलवलेस etc.

      Delete
    2. Good that you pointed it out. This description was missing in lesson related to Simple past tense; which might have caused this confusion. I added the details. Please refer once
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/simple-past-tense-part-2.html

      Delete
  3. He has shaken friends त्याने मित्रांना हलवले आहे
    Why here "He = त्याने, and not तो"?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. From this lesson it is not clear to me when I should translate he as 'to' and when as 'tyAne'?

      Delete
    2. use "त्याने" ... Refer the lessons related to simple past tense first. That should clear your doubts. If it does not, then do not hesitate to ask again.

      By the way, may I know your name plz. Are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

      - Kaushik

      Delete
  4. i found this site very useful for grammar, thank you. I know a little bit of marathi and i think that dhakal means push and not shake, so am i right?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You are welcome.
      You are right."dhakal" means to push. Looks like copy-paste mistake.

      May I know your name plz.

      Also I would like to know more about your Marathi learning and your experience of my website. Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    2. Thanks for pointing out mistake. I have updated lesson.
      Waiting for your reply.

      - Kaushik

      Delete
    3. Hi..now this is getting a little tricky But I am getting it somewhat. I dont understand why in your example above (reporduced below)

      you have pushed me तू मला ढकलले आहेस (tU malA Dhakalale Ahes )

      Based on previous lesson, should it not be "tu mala dhaklele aahe"? instead of aahes? Because mala is an object and the asne verb points to mala....Thx.

      Delete
    4. आहेस ..extra स for You(singular)
      Refer ending part of this lesson
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/simple-past-tense-part-2.html?m=1

      Delete
  5. For this example, why is it not hote (since 'friends', the object, is plural)?
    He was shaking friends तो मित्रांना हलवत होता (to mitrAMnA halavat hotA)

    ReplyDelete
  6. This sentence is in past continuous tense. So verb as per subject. Please refer corresponding lesson for more details. Are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

    Thanks,
    Kaushik

    ReplyDelete