Exceptional Verbs in Marathi which change in past tense form

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By now we have studied many grammar concepts including tense. We have seen the forms of verb in simple past tense is base of perfect tenses and other phrases. 
We have also observed that few verbs behave differently when their past tense form is created.

As per rule we append लो(lo) to verb to create its past tense form for "I".
e.g. I spoke -> मी बोललो ( mI bolalo )
I laughed -> मी हसलो ( mI hasalo )
i.e.  
बोल (bol)+ लो (lo)  =  बोललो (bolalo )
हस(has)+ लो (lo)  = हसलो ( hasalo )

But,
I went -> मी गेलो( mI gelo ). 

Now verb is "जाणे"(jANe). so we should have said जा(jA) + लो(lo)= जालो (jAlo ). 
But we did not say say. We appended suffix to गे(ge) to make it गेलो(gelo).

This is what I want to point out ! The unusual behaviour of few verbs. !! The verbs which change themselves before creating past tense form. As past tense form is base of many other tenses and phrases it is important to know such form.

In below table I have given verb, changed verb on which suffix to be applied and a sentence in simple past tense.

Verb in English
Verb in
Marathi
Changed
verb
before
appending
suffix
Simple example
 with suffix ला (lA)
Example
do
करणे
karaNe
के(ke)
केला(kelA)
I did it 
मी तो केला 
(mI to kelA)
try
प्रयत्न करणे
prayatn karaNe
प्रयत्न के
(prayatn ke)
प्रयत्न केला
(prayatn kelA)
tried learning French फ्रेंच शिकायचा प्रयत्न केला
(phreMch shikAyachA 
prayatn kelA )
give
देणे deNe
दि(dI)
दिला
(dilA)
Gave pen  पेन दिले 
(pen dile )
take
घेणे gheNe
घेत (ghet)
घेतला
(ghetalA)
took pen  पेन घेतले 
(pen ghetale)
live
राहणे rAhaNe
राहि (rAhi )
राहिला
(rAhilA)
lived in city  मी शहरात राहिलो  
mI shaharAt rAhilo
see
/watch
/look
बघणे baghaNe
बघित
(baghit )
बघितला
(baghitalA)
saw notice  
सूचना बघितली 
sUchanA baghitalI

पाहणे pAhaNe
पाहि
(pAhi )
पाहिला(pAhilA)
saw notice  
सूचना पाहिली  
( sUchanA pAhilI )
go
जाणे jANe
गे (ge)
गेला(gelA)
went to market
बाजारात गेलो 
( bAjArAt gelo )
come
येणे yeNe
(A)
आला(AlA)
came from market
बाजारातून आलो 
( bAjArAtUn Alo )
tell
सांगणे sAMgaNe
सांगित
(sAMgit )
सांगितला
(sAMgitalA)
told address
पत्ता संगितला 
( pattA sAMgitalA )
To recite
म्हणणे mhaNaNe
म्हट 
(mhaT )
म्हटला
(mhaTalA)
recited poem
कविता म्हटली
 ( kavitA mhaTalI )
to sing
गाणे gANe
गाय
( gAy )
गायला
(gAyalA)
sang a song  
गाणे गायले 
( gANe gAyale )
To ask for
मागणे mAgaNe
मागित
(mAgit )
मागितला
(mAgitalA)
asked for his pen  
त्याचे पेन मागितले
(tyAche pen mAgitale )
To wash
धूणे dhUNe
धुत
(dhut )
धुतला
(dhutalA)
Washed face
तोंड धुतले
 ( toMD dhutale )
To Drink
पीणे pINe
प्याय
(pyAy )
प्यायला(pyAyalA)
Drank tea
चहा प्यायला ( chahA pyAyalA )
To Eat
खाणे khANe
खाल् (khAl )
खाल्ला (khAllA)
Ate bread
ब्रेड खाल्ला (breD khAllA)
To Ask for
मागणे mAgaNe 

मागित
(mAgit)
मागितला
(mAgitalA)
Asked for tea
चहा मागितला
 (chahA mAgitalA)
To Become
होणे hoNe
झा
(jhA)
झाला
(jhAlA)
Became rich
श्रीमंत झाला
(shrImaMt jhAlA)
To get
मिळणे (miLaNe)

मिळा (miLA)


मिळाला (miLAlA)

Got work
काम मिळाले 
(kAm miLAle )

To run
पळणे (paLaNe)
पळा (paLA)
पळाला (paLAlA)
he ran fast
तो जोराने पळाला 
(to jorAne paLAlA )


Notes :-
1) Similar to "To Try" , there are many verbs in Marathi which are created using करणे (karaNe) e.g. व्यायाम करणे (vyAyAm  karaNe ), आंघोळ करणे (AMghoL karaNe). 
In all such verbs, the form of करणे (karaNe) will be created as per above rule

2) For verb म्हणणे ( mhaNaNe), the forms can be created with normal verb as well. so म्हटला (mhaTalA ) and म्हणला (mhaNalA) both forms are used.


Listen examples in this lesson at
https://youtu.be/B_MhOw7don0



More explanation about forms of verb म्हणणे ( mhaNaNe)
Past tense of Verb म्हणणे is formed in two ways
1) Like a अकर्मक verb
2) Like a सकर्मक verb

If sentence has a object then second way will be used more than first way.

1) Like a अकर्मक verb.  
i.e. The suffixes are appended as per gender and multiplicity of Subject. Sometimes people change verb stem from "म्हण" to "म्हणा". 

I sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs  ->
Masculine singular
मी श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलो/म्हणालो
(mI shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalo/mhaNAlo)

Feminine singular
मी श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणले/म्हणाले
(mI shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNale/mhaNAle)

We sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs ->
आम्ही श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलो/म्हणालो
(AmhI shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalo/mhaNAlo)


You(singular) sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs ->

Masculine singular
तू श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलास/म्हणालास
(tU shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalAs/mhaNAlAs)

Feminine singular
तू श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलीस/म्हणालीस
(tU shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalIs/mhaNAlIs)

He sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs ->
तो श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणला/म्हणाला
(to shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalaa/mhaNAlaa)

2) Like a सकर्मक verb. 
The suffixes are appended as per gender and multiplicity of Object. Suffixes are appended to "म्हट"

Masculine object "श्लोक"
Singular
I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang a hymn ->
मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी श्लोक म्हटला
(mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI shlok mhaTalA)

Plural 
I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang 10 hymns ->
मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी १० श्लोक म्हटले (mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI 10 shlok mhaTale)

Feminine object "कविता"
Singular
I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang a poem.
मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी कविता म्हटली
(mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI kavitA mhaTalI)

Plural 
I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang 10 poems ->
मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी कविता म्हटल्या (mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI kavitA mhaTalyA)

Neuter object "गाणे"
Singular
I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang a song ->
मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी गाणे म्हटले 
(mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI gANe mhaTale)

Plural 
I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang 10 songs ->
मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी १० गाणी म्हटली (mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI 10 gANI mhaTalI)

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
***************************************************************

2 comments:

  1. could you give some exercises to solve regarding past tense that would give us a better understanding




























    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. May I know your name please.

      You can think of few English sentences and try their Marathi translation. And get it reviewed here.

      I would also suggest you to join FB group for learning Marathi
      https://www.facebook.com/groups/learnmarathi.wid.bk
      There you can discuss with other Marathi learners; ask questions get some tips etc.

      So such exercise can be done more interactively there.

      Delete