Adjectives made from verb

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In English we create adjectives from verb like e.g. speaking doll, moving chair, spoken word, defeated nation. The words "speaking","spoken","defeated" etc. are adjectives created from verbs "To Speak", "To Defeat" etc.

In Marathi also we create such adjectives.
1) Adjectives indicating general behaviour 
e.g. Speaking tree, dancing doll etc.

In Marathi such adjectives are created by suffixing form of "णारा" to verb.
e.g. speaking :- बोल (bol) + णारा (NArA) -> बोलणारा  (bolaNArA) 
Laughing :- हस (has) + णारा  (NArA) -> हसणारा  ( hasaNArA  )

As we have seen before, the adjectives ending with vowel आ(A) change as per gender and multiplicity of noun, and it is changes using  "आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule" (http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/06/i-e-e-ya-i-rule.html )
Examples in below table 

                             Singular
                       Plural

Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
English word
 (A)
णारा(NArA)
 (I)
णारी (NArI)
 (e)
णारे (NAre)
 (e)
णारे (NAre)
या(yA)
णाऱ्या (NAryA)
 (I)
णारी (NArI)
speaking
बोलणारा
bolaNArA
बोलणारी
bolaNArI
बोलणारे
bolaNAre
बोलणारे
bolaNAre
बोलणाऱ्या
bolaNAryA
बोलणारी
bolaNArI
Laughing
हसणारा hasaNArA
हसणारी
hasaNArI
हसणारे
hasaNAre
हसणारे
hasaNAre
हसणाऱ्या
hasaNAryA
हसणारी
hasaNArI
Moving
हलणारा
halaNArA
हलणारी
halaNArI
हलणारे
halaNAre
हलणारे
halaNAre
हलणाऱ्या
halaNAryA
हलणारी
halaNArI

2) Adjectives indicating completed action
e.g. Spoken word, finished meal etc.

In Marathi such adjectives are created by suffixing form of "लेला" to verb.
e.g. Spoken:- बोल (bol) + लेला(lelA) -> बोललेला ( bolalelA )
Laughed :- हस (has) + लेला(lelA) -> हसलेला ( hasalelA )

These forms are appended to past tense word of that verb.
e.g. for verb बघणे(baghaNe ) the suffixes are appended to बघित(baghit) etc.


As we have seen before, the adjectives ending with vowel आ(A) change as per gender and multiplicity of noun, and it is changes using  "आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule" (http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/06/i-e-e-ya-i-rule.html )
Examples in below table 

                             Singular
                       Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
English word
 (A)
लेला (lelA)
 (I)
लेली (lelI)
 (e)
लेले (lele)
 (e)
लेले (lele)
या(yA)
लेल्या (lelyA)
 (I)
लेली (lelI)
spoken
बोललेला
bolalelA
बोललेली 
bolalelI
बोललेले 
bolalele
बोललेले 
bolalele
बोललेल्या
bolalelyA
बोललेली 
bolalelI
Laughed
हसलेला 
hasalelA
हसलेली 
hasalelI
हसलेले 
hasalele
हसलेले 
hasalele
हसलेल्या 
hasalelyA
हसलेली 
hasalelI
Moved
हललेला 
halalelA
हललेली 
halalelI
हललेले 
halalele
हललेले 
halalele
हललेल्या 
halalelyA
हललेली 
halalelI
Seen
बघितलेला
baghitalelA
बघितलेली
baghitalelI
बघितलेले
baghitalele
बघितलेले
baghitalele
बघितलेल्या
baghitalelyA
बघितलेली baghitalelI

3) Adjectives indicating ongoing action  
Third way of using verb can not be classified as adjective in English but in Marathi it is.
e.g. The boy who is giving speech is my brother.
That person who is dancing is mad.

So these group of word viz. "who is dancing/giving" can be thought as adjective. This adjective indicate that activity is going on at given moment. So in Marathi we will use present continuous tense and use form of "णारा"(NArA) or लेला (lelA) to create adjective. 

i.e.verb + त(t)  followed by form of असलेला/असणारा as per gender and multiplicity.

e.g.
The boy who is giving -> देत असलेला मुलगा ( det asalelA mulagA )    OR
                                      देत असणारा मुलगा (det asaNArA mulagA )

That person who is dancing -> नाचत असलेली व्यक्ती ( nAchat asalelI vyaktI ) OR
                                              नाचत असणारी व्यक्ती (nAchat asaNArI vyaktI )


As you would have guessed that as per  आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rulethe form of will be असलेला/असणारा
असणारा-असणारी-असणारे-असणारे-असणाऱ्या-असणारी (asaNArA-asaNArI-asaNAre-asaNAre-asaNAryA-asaNArI )
or
असलेला-असलेली-असलेले-असलेले-असलेल्या-असलेली (asalelA-asalelI-asalele-asalele-asalelyA-asalelI)

Even if you are talking about activity which was going on in past or future, you will use same pattern.
The boy who was giving money was my brother -> पैसे देत असलेला मुलगा माझा भाऊ होता (paise det asalelA mulagA mAjhA bhAU hotA)
Nation that will be doing progress will be successful -> प्रगती करत असलेली राष्ट्रे महान होतील (pragatI karat asalelI rAShTre mahAn hotIl)

Note that in day-to-day conversation instead of saying "नाचत असलेली व्यक्ती" a native speaker will tend to use shorter adjective i.e. "नाचणारी". So the context of the speech will convey appropriate meaning.




Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTfPSr3qN3c



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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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5 comments:

  1. There is another adjectival form which is not given here...
    here two are given...
    Continuous form (bolta hua peD = A tree that is speaking)
    Past form (bola hua shabd = A word that is spoken)

    The one which is left is...

    Habitual form (bolnewala peD = A tree that speaks) ..... I am sure that it isn't "bolNaar jhaaD"...

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