Using “To Like”

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In Marathi “To Like” i.e. “To be fond of” is आवडणे (AvaDaNe)

Sntence formation is bit different.  In english we say :-
I like mango.
She likes dancing.

Here verb like is formed according to subject/doer of action. But in Marathi subject “आवडणे is formed as per object.
Something like saying “Mango is liked by me”. Example will me it clear. 

Examples :- 
I like mango :- मला आंबा आवडतो  (malA AMbA AvaDato )
She likes dancing :- तिला नाचणे/नाचायला आवडते (tilA nAchaNe/nAchAyalA AvaDate)
He likes maggi :- त्याला मॅगी आवडते  (tyAlA m~agI AvaDate )
They liked program :- त्यांना कार्यक्रम आवडला (tyAMnA kAryakram AvaDalA)
They will like lunch :- त्यांना जेवण आवडेल (tyAMnA jevaN AvaDel)

Use of verb “Like” to show similarity.
e.g.
Your shirt is like mine.
Her writing style is like a great artist.

We have seen that, in Marathi, “सारखा” is the preposition used to show the similarity. The form of सारखा”( sArakhA) will change as per gender and multiplicity of object. i.e. it will follow आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई(A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule rule

So forms will be :-  सारखा - सारखी - सारखे - सारखे - सारख्या - सारखी
(sArakhA - sArakhI - sArakhe - sArakhe - sArakhyA - sArakhI)


Examples :- 
He is like me :- तो माझ्यासारखा आहे (to mAjhyAsArakhA Ahe)
Her pant is like mine :- तिची पॅंट माझ्यासारखी आहे (tichI p~aMT mAjhyAsArakhI aahe)
His singling was like Lata’s :- त्याचे गाणे लतासारखे होते (tyAche gANe latAsArakhe hote)
Do not speak like a fool :- मूर्खासारखे बोलू नकोस (mUrkhAsArakhe bolU nakos)

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL97qOi_Qqc



For using "To Like" with other verbs, refer article :- 
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/07/using-to-like-with-other-verbs.html


Exercise: Try creating sentences with different verbs using above rules. Crosscheck them by creating same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/ 
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Giving instructions formally

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We see many sign boards saying :- 
Do not smoke here
Do not use mobile phones
Please maintain silence

Also on different application forms we see instructions like :- 
Fill up the form in Block letters.
Enter your preferences.
etc.

All these instructions are nothing but imperative stements(Commands). We have already seen how to prepare imperative sentences.

So translations will be :- 

Do not smoke here  :- धूम्रपान करू नका (dhoomrapAn karU nakA)
Do not use mobile phones :- मोबाईल फोन वापरु नका (mobAIl phon vAparu nakA)
Enter your preferences :- तुमची पसंती भरा (tumachI pasMtI bharA)

    
But in Marathi there is bit difference in commands and giving instructions formally.

Postive instructions :-
While giving instruction formally, the form of “आवा”( AvA) is appended to verb.
The form of “आवा”( AvA) is created depending on the gender and multiplicity of object. For "akarmak" verbs neuter-singular form is used.
Refer section आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई(A-I-e-e-yA-I)rule for more understanding.

So applying this rules forms will be :-
आवा - आवी आवे/आवेत - आवे -आव्या/आव्यात  आवी/आवीत  ( AvA - AvI – Ave/Avet - Ave -AvyA – AvI/AvIt )

e.g.
fill up :- भर + आवा ( bhar + AvA ) = भरावा (bharAvA)

Examples :-
1) Address -> पत्ता (pattA ) is masculine
Write your address :- तुमचा पत्ता लिहावा (tumachA pattA lihAvA)
Write your addresses :- तुमचे पत्ते लिहावे/ (tumache patte lihAve)

1) preference -> पसंती  is feminine
Enter your preference :- तुमची पसंती भरावी (tumachI pasMtI bharA)
Enter your preferences :- तुमच्या पसंती भराव्या(tumachyA pasMtI bharAvyAt )

2) Name -> नाव (nAv) is neuter
Speak your name :- आपले नाव सांगावे (Apale nAv sAMgAve)
Speak your names :- आपली नावे सांगावी/सांगावीत (ApalI nAve sAMgAvI/sAMgAvIt)

Negative instructions :-
Negative instruction are creted by adding “ऊ नये” (U naye) to verb.
For plurals sometime नयेत (nayet)can used instead of नये(naye)
e.g.
Do not speak -> बोल + ऊ नये = बोलू नये ( bolU naye )

Examples :-
Do not smoke :- धूम्रपान करू नये (dhoomrapAn karU naye)
Do not cross road here :- येथे रस्ता ओलाण्डू नये (yethe rastA olANDU naye)
Do not pluck flowers :- फुले तोडू नयेत (phule toDU nayet)


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ba9Sx0pOh6M



Exercise: Try creating sentences with different verbs using above rules. Crosscheck them by creating same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/

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Which-That / What-That sentences

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From title it might not be clear what am I going to teach in this article. Example will make it clear what I mean by this title.

Take this sentence :-
1) I could not understand what you just said.
2) Which fruit you want, point your finger to that
3) When you come I feel happy
4) what is in your mind, tell me that.

Here we used words “what”,” Which”,”When”,”what”. These are words used for WH-questions. But here they are not exactly used for questions. 

Here seneteces have two parts “condition” and "post-condition”. WH-question words are used to specify “condition” part.

It is analogous to “if-then” sentences.

We have already seen synonyms for WH-questions in Marathi. So you will be able to use these words and translate above sentences.
e.g.
1) I could not understand what you just said.
तू आत्ता काय म्हणालास ते मला कळले नाही (tU AttA kAy mhaNAlAs te malA kaLale nAhI )

2) Which fruit you want, show me that.
तुला कोणते फळ हवे आहे ते मला दाखव (tulA koNate phaL have Ahe te malA dAkhav)


But there is other form of creating such sentences. They are using pairs :- जो-तो, जी-ती, जे-ते (jo-to, jI-tI, je-te) etc.

So when we are using “तो” in post-condition part we will use its companion viz. “जो” in condition part.
So when we are using “ते” in post-condition part we will use its companion viz. “जे” in condition part.
etc.
e.g.

1) I could not understand what you just said.
तू आत्ता जे म्हणालास ते मला कळले नाही (tU AttA je mhaNAlAs te malA kaLale nAhI )




Below I have listed such pairs


Pronoun/word in English
Prnoun in Marathi
Its companion in “condition Marathi 
He / That (m.) / This (m.)  
तो / तो / हा
जो (jo)
She / That (f.)/ This (f.) 
ती / ती / ही
जी  (jI)
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
ते / ते / हे
जे (je)
They (Plural of He)  /Those (m.) /These (m.)
ते / ते / हे
जे (je)
They (Plural of She) / Those (f.) / These (f.) 
त्या / त्या / ह्या
ज्या (jyA)
They (Plural of it) / Those (n.) / These (n.)
ती / ती / ही
जी (jI)
that time
तेव्हा (tevhA)
जेव्हा  (jevhA)
this way

that way  
असा (asA )

तसा (tasA) 
जसा (jasA )
This many


That many
इतके (itake)


तितके (titake)
जितके (jitake)

this much

that much  
एवढे (evaDhe)

तेवढे (tevaDhe)
जेवढे (jevaDhe)

Here

there
इथे (ithe)

तिथे (tithe)
जिथे (jithe)


Examples :- 
1) I could not understand what you just said.
तू आत्ता जे म्हणालास ते मला कळले नाही (tU AttA je mhaNAlAs te malA kaLale nAhI )

2) When you come I feel happy
तू जेव्हा येतोस तेव्हा मला आनंद वाटतो (tU jevhA yetos tevhA malA AnaMda vATato)

3) what is in your mind, tell me that.
तुझ्या मनात जे आहेते मला सांग(tujhyA manAt je Ahe, te malA sAMg)

4)Which fruit you want, show me that.
तुला जे फळ हवे आहे ते मला दाखव (tulA je phaL have Ahe te malA dAkhav
)

5) When you(girl) come I feel happy
तू जेव्हा येतेस तेव्हा मला आनंद वाटतो (tU jevhA yetes tevhA malA AnaMda vATato)

6) Go back, the way you have come
तू जसा आलास तसा परत जा (tU jasA AlAs tasA parat jA)

The form of “companion” will be created similar to main word using rules we have been studying in many previous articles like prepositions.

e.g.
to whom -> त्याला - ज्याला (tyAlA – jyAlA )
with whom -> त्याच्याबरोबर -  ज्याच्याबरोबर (tyAchyAbarobar jyAchyAbarobar )
for whom (plural) -> त्यांच्यासाठी ज्यांच्यासाठी (tyAMchyAsAThI  jyAMchyAsAThI)

Sentences :-
1) Give it to him, who wants it
ज्याला हवे आहे त्याला दे (jyAlA have Ahe tyAlA de)
2) tell me about them whom you read about :-
ज्यांच्याबद्दल तू वाचलेस त्यांच्याबद्दल मला सांग (jyAMchyAbaddal tU vAchales tyAMchyAbaddal malA sAMg)

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Sometimes we use words “wherever”, “whenever”,”whichever” e.g.

Wherever you go I will come.

Whichever menu food like, you order it.



In Marathi, repeating the companioun word will give the effect of “-ever” in English
e.g.
Whichever (for neutral):-  जे  जे 
Whichever (for feminine):-   जी जी
Wherever :- जिथे जिथे

Sentence example :-
1) Wherever you will go I will come :-  तू जिथे जिथे जाशील तिथे तिथे मी येईन
(tU jithe jithe jAshIl tithe tithe mI yeIn)
2) Whichever vegetables you want, you buy it :- तुला जी जी भाजी हवी आहे ती ती तू विकत घे  (tulA jI jI bhAjI havI Ahe tI tI tU vikat ghe)
3) Whenever you call he will answer :- तू जेव्हा जेव्हा फोन करशील तेव्हा तेव्हा तो उत्तर देईल
(tU jevhA jevhA phon karashIl tevhA tevhA to uttar deIl)

Listen Examples Online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kG-kpUFwl8


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Using "Let" and "Shall we"

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1) Using “Let” for suggestion
Suppose we want to call our friends for some action , we will say
“Let us go”, “Let us start lunch” etc.

In Marathi such form is created by suffixing “ऊया” (UyA) to verb. 
Also generally sentence is started with चला (chalA) which is kind of exclaimation or call for action.

Examples :-
Let’s play :- चला, आपण खेळूया (chalA, ApaN kheLUyA)
Let’s go :- चला, आपण जाऊया (chalA, ApaN jAUyA)

आपण” can be omitted.
Let’s speak :- चला, बोलूया

Negative sentence :-
Negative sentence can be formed by adding “नको” (nako) before verb.
Generally चला (chalA) will not be used as we are not calling for any action.

Examplles :-
Let’s not play :- आपण नको खेळूया (ApaN nako kheLUyA)
Let’s not go :- आपण नको जाऊया (ApaN nako jAUyA)
Let’s not speak :- नको बोलूया (nako bolUyA )


Questions 
In English question is created using phrase "Shall we"
In Marathi question can be asked in two ways. 
1st way) Verb + ऊया” (UyA)   का  (kA) 

2nd way) Second form is created by suffixing form of “आयचा” (AyachA)  to verb. Depending on the gender and multiplicity of noun required form is suffixed. Forms are आयचा-आयची-आयचे-आयचे-आयच्या-आयची ( AyachA-AyachI-Ayache-Ayache-AyachyA-AyachI ). 
e.g. Verb is "खा".  For Masculine-Singular noun  "आंबा" we will say "आंबा खायचा"
For Feminine-Singular noun  "चिंच " we will say "चिंच खायची"

Examples :- 
Shall we play cricket ?
1) क्रिकेट खेळूया का ?  ( krikeT kheLUyA  kA?)
2) क्रिकेट खेळायचे का ?  ( krikeT kheLAyAche kA ? )

Shall we watch movie ? 

1) सिनेमा बघूया का ? ( sinemA baghUyA kA ?)
2) सिनेमा बघायचा का ? ( sinemA baghAyachA kA ?)

Shall we go home ?
1) घरी जाऊया का ? ( gharI jAUyA  kA?)
2) घरी जायचे का? ( gharI jAyache kA? )

Shall we eat mango ?
1) आंबा खाऊया का? ( AMbA khAUyA kA? ) 
2) आंबा खायचा का? ( AMbA khAyachA kA? )

Shall we eat tamarind ?

1) चिंच खाऊया का ? ( chiMch khAUyA kA ?)
2) चिंच खायची का ? ( chiMch khAyachI kA ?)


2) Using “Let” for allowing activity 
There is another usage of “Let”
e.g. “Let him play”, “Let him study quietly”
By such sentence you are asking someone to allow the activity happen freely.

In Marathi such sentence is formed by appending “ऊ दे”( U de) to verb.

This is an imperative/command statement so as you can guess for you-plural suffix will be “ऊ द्या” (U dyA)
Examples will make it clear

Examples :-
Let him play :- त्याला खेळू दे (tyAlA kheLU de )
Let me eat :- मला खाऊ दे (malA khAU de )
Let her speak :- तीला बोलू दे (tIlA bolU de  )
You all, Let him play :- त्याला खेळू द्या (tyAlA kheLU dyA )
You all , Let me eat :- मला खाऊ द्या (malA khAU dyA )
You all, Let her speak :- तीला बोलू द्या (tIlA bolU dyA  )

Negative sentence :-
We have already seen how to create negative imperative sentences. So negative imperative for verb “दे” (de) is “देऊ नकोस”(deU nakos ) for singular you
and “देऊ नका”(deU nakA) for plural you.

Take below examples :-
Don’t let him play :- त्याला खेळू देऊ नकोस (tyAlA kheLU deU nakos)
Don’t let me eat :- मला खाऊ देऊ नकोस (malA khAU deU nakos)
You all, don’t let her speak :- तीला बोलू देऊ नका (tIlA bolU deU nakA)
You all, don’t let me eat :- मला खाऊ देऊ नका (malA khAU deU nakA)

Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6W7tHofjOG8



Exercise: Try creating sentences with different verbs using above rules. Crosscheck them by creating same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/
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आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule

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आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई  (A-I-e-e-yA-I) Rule :- 
The title of this article looks strange. But as you will read it you will see that it is not strange rather you have already learnt it.

Recall the article about adjectives. There we had said that if masculine-singular form of adjective ends with आ(A) then there will be different forms of adjective depending on gender and multiplicity. E,g, काळा/ काळी /काळे etc.

Similarly in article about “To want” we saw that different forms of हवा ( havA) are used depending on on gender and multiplicity of object. E.g हवा / हवी / हवे  etc.

I think by now you must have found out that these forms follow specific pattern. I call it “आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई  rule”
i.e if masculine-singular form ends with (A) and words has different form as per gender-multiplicity then ending will be
masculine singular       आ (A)
feminine singular         ई (I)
neuter singular            ए (e)
masculine plural            (e)         
feminine plural            या (yA)                               
neuter  plural              ई  (I)

When you will observe below table you will understand it clearly and will also realize that in many articles wherever we had mentioned such forms, they were actually following this rule. So you do not need to learn them by heart. You can create different form of words your self



                             Singular
                       Plural

Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
English word
(A)
(I)
(e)
(e)
या(yA)
(I)
my
माझा mAjhA
माझी 
mAjhI
माझे
mAjhe
माझे
mAjhe
माझ्या
mAjhyA
माझी 
mAjhI 
speaking
 बोलणारा
bolaNArA
बोलणारी
bolaNArI
बोलणारे
bolaNAre
बोलणारे
bolaNAre
बोलणार्‍या
bolaNAr^yA
बोलणारी
bolaNArI
want
हवा
havA
हवी
havI
हवे
have
हवे
have
हव्या
havyA
हवी
havI
grey
करडा
karaDA
करडी
karaDI
करडे
karaDe
करडे
karaDe
करड्या
karaDyA
करडी
karaDI


Note :- 
1)  When applying this rule ending with consonant स(s), we use श(sh) instead of स(s) for :-
feminine singular 
feminine plural 
neuter plural

So forms for कसा (kasA) are :-
कसा-कशी-कसे-कसे-कश्या-कशी (kasA-kashI-kase-kase-kashyA-kashI)

2) As you know letters च(ch), ज(j), झ(jh) have two pronunciation in Marathi.
One is lighter and other is heavier.
When applying this rule to words ending with consonant च(ch), ज(j), झ(jh), heavier sound is used for :-
feminine singular 
feminine plural 
neuter plural 

My ->
माझा-माझी-माझे-माझे-माझ्या-माझी
(mAjhA-mAjhI-mAjhe-mAjhe-mAjhyA-mAjhI)

Your ->
तुझा-तुझी-तुझे-तुझे-तुझ्या-तुझी
(tujhA-tujhI-tujhe-tujhe-tujhyA-tujhI)

His ->
त्याचा-त्याची-त्याचे-त्याचे-त्याच्या-त्याची
(tyAchA-tyAchI-tyAche-tyAche-tyAchyA-tyAchI)

Ram's -> 
रामचा-रामची-रामचे-रामचे-रामच्या-रामची
(rAmachA-rAmachI-rAmache-rAmache-rAmachyA-rAmachI)

Which :- 
जो-जी-जे-जे-ज्या-जी(jo-jI-je-je-jyA-jI)

Fresh :- 
ताजा-ताजी-ताजे-ताजे-ताज्या-ताजी (tAjA-tAjI-tAje-tAje-tAjyA-tAjI)

Listen this lesson online at 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIzd_1go8Jc




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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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