Using verb To Want/To Need

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The english verb “To Want” or “To need” in Marathi is “पाहिजे असणे (pAhije asaNe)/ हवे असणे (have asaNe).

Sentence formation is little different in Marathi.
In English we say, “I want mango”. It can also be said as “Mango is wanted to me”. Marathi sentence structure is similar to second way.

Form of subject             
object        
पाहिजे/ form of हवा as per object
form of  “असणे” as per object
मला (malA)
आंबा (AMbA)                               
पाहिजे/ हवा
(pAhije/havA)
आहे (Ahe)


I want mago      -> मला आंबा पाहिजे/हवा आहे (malA AMbA pAhije/havA Ahe)
He wants mago ->  त्याला आंबा पाहिजे/हवा आहे  (tyAlA AMbA pAhije/havA Ahe)
She wants mago -> तीला आंबा पाहिजे/हवा आहे  (tIlA AMbA pAhije/havA Ahe  )

As you see, the object “mango” is same in all sentences. So verb formation is same for all sentences i.e. “पाहिजे आहे / हवा आहे”. Only the form of subject “to me”, ”to him” , “to her” are used.

Suppose object is changed to “mangoes” i.e. masculine plural so sentences will be
I/He/She want magos      -> मला / त्याला/ तीला तीला आंबे पाहिजे/हवे आहेत (malA / tyAlA / tIlA  AMbe pAhije/have Ahet
)

See the verb changed to “हवे”, this is same as we had seen in article about adjectives (Remember   काळा/काळी/काळे ??!!!). Form of supporting verb is changed “आहेत”. This is also same as per the rules of simple present tense.

Just for your reference the form of “हवे” can be summarized as

Singular
Plural
Masculine
हवा (havA)
हवे (have)
Feminie
हवी (havI)
हव्या (havyA)
Neuter
हवे (have)
हवी (havI)


Go through below examples in different genders. Multiplicity and tenses

Present tense
1) Masculine
chalk :- खडू (khaDU )
Singular
He/She/They want chalk :- 
त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना खडू पाहिजे/हवा आहे 
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA khaDU pahije/havA Ahe)
plural
He/She/They want chalks :- 
त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना खडू पाहिजे/हवे आहेत
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA khaDU pahije/have Ahet)
2) Feminine
Bag :- पेटी (peTI)
Singular
He/She/They want bag :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पेटी पाहिजे/हवी आहे
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA peTI pahije/havI Ahe)
plural
He/She/They want bags:- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पेट्या पाहिजे/हव्या आहेत
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA peTyA pahije/havyA Ahet)

3) Neuter
Page :- पान (pAn)
Singular
He/She/They want page :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पान पाहिजे/हवे आहे
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA pAn pahije/have Ahe)
plural
He/She/They want pages:- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पाने पाहिजे/हवी आहेत
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA pAne pahije/havI Ahet)

Past tense
1) Masculine
chalk :- खडू (khaDU )
Singular
He/She/They wanted chalk :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना खडू पाहिजे/हवा होता
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA khaDU pahije/havA hotA)
plural
He/She/They wanted chalks :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना खडू पाहिजे/हवे होते
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA khaDU pahije/have hote)
2) Feminine
Bag :- पेटी (peTI)
Singular
He/She/They wanted bag :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पेटी पाहिजे/हवी होती
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA peTI pahije/havI hotI)
plural
He/She/They wanted bags:- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पेट्या पाहिजे/हव्या होत्या
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA peTyA pahije/havyA hotyA)
3) Neuter
Page :- पान (pAn)
Singular
He/She/They wanted page :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पान पाहिजे/हवे होते
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA pAn pahije/have hote)
plural
He/She/They wanted pages:- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पाने पाहिजे/हवी होती
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA pAne pahije/havI hotI)

Future tense
1) Masculine
chalk :- खडू (khaDU )
Singular
He/She/They will need chalk :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना खडू पाहिजे/हवा असेल
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA khaDU pahije/havA asel)
plural
He/She/They will need chalks :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना खडू पाहिजे/हवे असतील
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA khaDU pahije/have asatIl)

2) Feminine
Bag :- पेटी (peTI)
Singular
He/She/They will need bag :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पेटी पाहिजे/हवी असेल
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA peTI pahije/havI asel)
plural
He/She/They will need bags:- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पेट्या पाहिजे/हव्या असतील
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA peTyA pahije/havyA asatIl)

3) Neuter
Page :- पान (pAn)
Singular
He/She/They will need page :- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पान पाहिजे/हवे असेल
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA pAn pahije/have asel)
plural
He/She/They will need pages:- त्याला/ तीला /त्यांना पाने पाहिजे/हवी असतील
(tyAlA/tIlA/tyAMnA pAne pahije/havI asatIl)

Negative sentence:-
In English we will say negative sentence as, "I do not want", "I did not want" etc.


The sentence structure of negative sentence is similar to positive sentence. Only instead of “पाहिजे/ हवा”(pAhije/hava) we will use नको (nako)



Form of subject              
object        
नको (nako)
form of  “असणे” as per object
मला (malA)
आंबा (AMbA)                       
नको (nako)
आहे (Ahe)



Examples :-

I do not want mango:- मला आंबा नको आहे (malA AMbA nako Ahe)

She will not want bag:- तीला पेटी नको असेल  (tIlA peTI nako asel)

He did not want chalk :- त्याला खडू नको होता (tyAlA khaDU nako hotA)

He did not want bag :- त्याला पेटी नको होती (tyAlA peTI nako hotI)

There is another way to create negative sentences. But it is NOT preferred way. 
A positive sentence can be converted to negative sentence by replacing पाहिजे(pAhije) with नाही पाहिजे(nAhI pAhije
Examples :- 
I do not want mango:- मला आंबा नाही पाहिजे (malA AMbA nAhI pAhije)
She does not want ice-cream :- तीला आईसक्रीम नाही पाहिजे(tIlA AIsakrIm nAhI pAhije)
He did not want chalk :- त्याला खडू नाही पाहिजे होता (tyAlA khaDU nAhI pAhije hotA)


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WqKkngjghUY

Using Want/Need with another verb :-
Refer other post 
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/07/using-to-want-with-other-verbs.html



Using verb लागणे(lAgaNe)
There is subtle difference in "To need" and "To want". A need is something you have to have, something you can't do without. A good example is food. 
A want is something you would like to have. It is not absolutely necessary, but it would be a good thing to have. A good example is music.

So to indicate "To need" in colloquial Marathi, we use verb लागणे(lAgaNe).
Sentence structure is same as above


Form of subject             
object        
form of  लागणे(lAgaNe) as per object
मला (malA)
बादली (bAdalI )                               
लागते (lAgate)

I need bucket -> मला बादली लागते (malA bAdalI lAgate )
I will need bucket -> मला बादली लागेल (malA bAdalI lAgel)

My car needs lot of petrol -> माझ्या गाडीला खूप पेट्रोल लागते (mAjhyA gADIlA khUp peTrol lAgate)


Please note that there are many meaning of verb लागणे(lAgaNe). So depending on context. Refer lesson for more details.
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/10/lagane-one-verb-multiple-meanings.html


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Using verb "Can/To be able to"

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“To can” or “To be able to” in Marathi is “शकणे” (shakaNe )

The sentence formation is
Subject    verb+(U)       form of “शकणे”  (shakaNe) as per tense and subject
मी                      खाऊ                     शकतो

In all the tenses, the form of “शकणे”  (shakaNe) is as per subject.
We have already seen how to prepare verb in simple present/past/future tense. So by applying those rules on verb "शकणे" below are few examples :-

I can eat                            :- मी खाऊ शकतो (mI khAU shakato )
He can sing                        :- तो गाऊ  शकतो (to gAU  shakato )
You(plural) could eat mango :- तुम्ही आंबा खाऊ शकलात ( tumhI AMbA khAU  
                                                                          shakalAt )
You(plural) could eat chutney :-  तुम्ही चटणी खाऊ शकलात (tumhI chaTaNI  khAU 
                                                                            shakalAt)
She could dance                    :- ती नाचू शकली (tI nAchU shakalI )
They ( plural of she) will be able to move :- त्या हलू शकतील (tyA halU shakatIl )

Negative sentence for Can

The sentence formation is
Subject    verb+(U)     negative form of “शकणे”  (shakaNe) as per tense and    
                                  subject
मी                      खाऊ                     शकत नाही  

We have already seen rules for negative sentences. Using those we can create form “शकणे
Examples :-
I can not eat :- मी खाऊ शकत नाही  (mI khAU shakat nAhI  )
He can not sing :- तो गाऊ शकत नाही  (to gAU  shakat nAhI  )
She could not dance :- ती नाचू शकत नाही  (tI nAchU shakat nAhI)
You(plural) could not eat mango :- तुम्ही आंबा खाऊ शकला नाहीत ( tumhI AMbA khAU shakalA nAhIt)
You(plural) could not eat chutney :-  तुम्ही चटणी खाऊ शकला नाहीत (tumhI chaTaNI  khAU shakalA nAhIt)
They ( plural of she)  will not be able to move :- त्या हलू शकणार नाहीत  (tyA halU shakaNAr nAhIt)

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBqxdQgzWtY


---------------------------------------------------------
Verb जमणे (jamaNe) is also used to indicate ability for some action.
Sentence structure is
Form of subject woth preposition “To”
Object
main verb + आयला (AyalA)
Form of verb जमणे (jamaNe) as per tense for neuter singular.
जमले(jamale ) जमते (jamate)
जमेल (jamel  )
मला (malA)
क्रिकेट(krikeT )
खेळायला (kheLAyalA)
जमते (jamate)

I can play cricket ->  मला क्रिकेट खेळायला जमते  (malA krikeT kheLAyalA jamate )
I could  play cricket ->  मला क्रिकेट खेळायला जमले (malA krikeT kheLAyalA jamale)
I will be able to play cricket ->  मला क्रिकेट खेळायला जमेल (malA krikeT kheLAyalA jamel)

He can eat mangoes -> त्याला आंबे खायला जमते  (tyAlA AMbe khAyalA jamate )
He could eat mangoes -> त्याला आंबे खायला जमले (tyAlA AMbe khAyalA jamale)
He will be able to eat mangoes :- त्याला आंबे खायला जमेल (tyAlA AMbe khAyalA jamel)

Sometimes people tend to make form of verb जमणे (jamaNe) as per gender and multiplicity of object. 
They could open box->त्यांना खोका उघडायला जमला (tyAMnA khokA ughaDaayalaa jamalA)

They could open bag ->त्यांना पेटी उघडायला जमली (tyAMnA peTI ughaDaayalaa jamalI)

Verb जमणे (jamaNe) has other meaning which is “To gather”. 
So if subject is not used with preposition “to” then, जमणे (jamaNe) is used to mean “To gather”

e.g. त्यांना बोलायला जमले. (tyAMnA bolAyalA jamale.) -> They could speak
But  ते बोलायला जमले. (te bolAyalA jamale.)  -> They gathered to speak

आम्हाला पळायला जमेल (AmhAlA paLAyalA jamel) -> We will be able to run
आम्ही पळायला जमू (AmhI paLAyalA jamU) -> We will gather to run 

Listen this part of lesson online at 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnLfb0ZZ-1U



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Adjectives in Marathi

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Like in English we have adjectives in Marathi, to describe more about noun/pronoun.

Rule 1) In Marathi usage of adjective can change according to the gender and multiplicity of noun.
Genrally those masculine adjective which ends with vowel (A) change as per gender and multiplicity.

If masculine adjective ends with vowel (A) then corresponding feminine ends with (I) and neuter ends with  (e) .

e.g. Black -> काळा (kALA)
Black horse -> काळा घोडा (kALA  ghoDA )
Black chair ->  काळी खुर्ची (kALI khurchI )
Black page  -> काळे पान ( kALe pAn )

In marathi Horse (घोडा ) is masculine , chair (खुर्ची) is feminine and page (पान ) is neuter. So the adjective was changed to  काळा, काळी, काळे respectively.

For plurals they will be
Black horses -> काळे  घोडे (kALe  ghoDe)
Black chairs ->  काळ्या  खुर्च्या (kALyA  khurchyA )
Black pages -> काळी पाने  (kALI pAne )

We have already seen the rules for making plurals depnding on gender and ending vowel. Same rules are applied here to both adjective and noun.

Rule 2 ) Other adjectives genrally remain same in all genders.

Few examples of adjectives are given below. You will learn more adjectives as you will read Marathi more and more
Adjective in English
masculine singluar
feminine singular
neuter
singular
masculine plural
feminine
plural
neuter
plural
good
चांगला (chAMgalA)
चांगली (chAMgalI)
चांगले (chAMgale)
चांगले (chAMgale)
चांगल्या
(chAMgalyA)
चांगली chAMgalI
big
मोठा (moThA)
मोठी (moThI)
मोठे
( moThe )
मोठे
( moThe )
मोठ्या 
(moThyA )
मोठी (moThI)
fat
जाडा (jADA)
जाडी (jADI)
जाडे (jADe)
जाडे (jADe)
जाड्या ( jADyA)
जाडी (jADI)
long
                                                       लांब (lAMb)
wide
                                                        रुंद (ruMd)

 Rule 3) When adjective ending with vowel (A) is used along with preposition, its form changes same as their corresponding noun. i.e. there is सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) of adjectives in Marathi for adjective ending with vowel (A).
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) created by appending  या (yA). See below example to understand it clearly.

Good horse  -> चांगला घोडा   (chAMgalA ghoDA )
For good horse --> चांगल्या घोड्या साठी (chAMgalyA ghoDyA sAThI )
See the “चांगला” is changed to “चांगल्या” same as “घोडा” changed to  घोड्या”.

Good chair -> चांगली खुर्ची
For good chair -> चांगल्या खुर्ची साठी

Easy exam -> सोपी परीक्षा  (sopI parIkShA )
After easy exam ->  सोप्या परीक्षेनंतर  ( sopyA parIkShenaMtar )


Rule 4) Other adjectives generally reamin same even when used with preposition
Red horse :- लाल घोडा  (lAl ghoDA )
For red horse :- लाल घोड्यासाठी ( lAl ghoDyAsAThI )
Here “घोडा” changed to  घोड्या” but adjective “लाल” remained unchanged.


Beautiful drawing ->  सुंदर चित्र  (suMdar chitr )
About beautiful drawing  -> सुंदर चित्राबद्दल ( suMdar chitrAbaddal)


Rule 5) Verb as objective
In English we use phrases like “Speaking Doll”, “Talking book” etc. 
Here form of verbs speak, talk are used as kind of adjective. 
In Marathi same can be achieved by appending णारा (NArA )/ णारी (NArI) / णारे (NAre ) to verb depending on gender ie. Masculine, feminied and neuter respectively

Examples :-  
Masculine
Talking boy     :- बोलणारा मुलगा (bolaNArA mulagA)
Rotating fan    :- फिरणारा पंखा (phiraNArA paMkhA)

Feminine
Talking girls   :- बोलणारी मुलगी (bolaNArI mulagI)
Moving chair    :- हलणारी खुर्ची  (halaNArI khurchI)
Flying saucer   :- उडणारी तबकडी  (uDaNArI tabakaDI  )

Neuter
Talking book    :- बोलणारे पुस्तक ( bolaNAre pustak )
Moving tree      :- हलणारे झाड  (halaNAre jhAD) 

Similarily for past-tense verb i.e seen passge, unseen passage, rotten food etc. we will append लेला (lelA) / लेली (lelI  )/ लेले (lele)  to verb depending on gender ie. Masculine, feminied and neuter respectively.

Examples :- 
Masculine
Talked boy     :- बोललेला मुलगा (bolaNArA mulagA)
Rotated fan    :- फिरलेला पंखा (phiraNArA paMkhA)

Feminine
Talked girls   :- बोललेली मुलगी (bolaNArI mulagI)
Moved chair    :- हललेली खुर्ची  (halaNArI khurchI)
Flyed saucer   :- उडलेली तबकडी  (uDaNArI tabakaDI  )

Neuter
Talked book    :- बोललेले पुस्तक ( bolaNAre pustak )
Moved tree      :- हललेले झाड  (halaNAre jhAD) 


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQ5T_rsghLo
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Prepositions with Verbs

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We have seen that when using preposition with pronouns or nouns, the form of pronouns or nouns changes which is called सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi or Oblique case form in English.
Same way happens while using preposition with verb.

For example, in English we say "after doing", "before singing", "while writing". 
In English we use “-ing” form of verb for proposition usage. 

In marathi ण्या (NyA) is suffixed to verb.

e.g.  
Verb in English
vern in Marahti
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi of verb
do
कर (kar )

करण्या karaNyA

speak
बोल (bol )
बोलण्या (bolaNyA )
dance
नाच (nAch )
नाचण्या (nAchaNyA )


About speaking :- बोलण्याबद्दल (bolaNyAbaddal)
For eating :- खाण्यासाठी (khANyAsAThI)
reason of coming :- येण्याचे कारण (yeNyAche kAraN)

Special behaviour for preposition “after”
Preposition "after" can be used two ways. Consider two sentences.
1) She spoke after my dancing
2) She spoke after I danced

The first sentence can be formed by above rule.
After dancing :- नाचण्यानंतर (nAchaNyAnaMtar )
She spoke after my dancing  -> माझ्या नाचण्यानंतर ती गायली (mAjhyA nAchaNyAnaMtar tI gAyalI)

In second sentence we used “after I danced”.
“I danced” in marathi is “मी नाचलो
So in such cases we suffix ल्या (lyA) instead of ण्या (NyA)
So “after danced” becomes नाचल्यानंतर (nAchalyAnaMtar)

Full senetece will be
She spoke after I danced  ->  मी नाचल्यानंतर ती बोलली (mI nAchalyAnaMtar tI bolalI
)
He cried after she went -> ती गेल्यानंतर तो रडला  ( tI gelyAnaMtar to raDalA ) 


When you are talking about past action or action about to happen soon; we suffix चे(che) to this verb form. So these sentences can be said in two ways. 

Below examples will make it clear. First translation is usual way and other using "verb form" + चे(che) 

He told about his coming to school -> 
तो शाळेत आला असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet AlA ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत आल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet AlyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

He told me that he is coming to school -> 
तो शाळेत येत आहे असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yet Ahe ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत येत असल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yet asalyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)


He told me that he is going to come to school -> 
तो शाळेत येणार आहे असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yeNAr Ahe ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत येणार असल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yeNAr asalyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

I don't remember she having said something like this -> 
ती असे काही बोलली आहे असे मला आठवत नाही (tI ase kAhI bolalI Ahe ase malA AThavat nAhI)
ती असे काही बोलली असल्याचे मला आठवत नाही (tI ase kAhI bolalI asalyAche malA AThavat nAhI)

I don't remember she having eaten mango -> 
तीने आंबा खाल्ला असे मला आठवत नाही (tIne AMbA khAllA ase malA AThavat nAhI)
तीने आंबा खाल्ल्याचे मला आठवत नाही (tIne AMbA khAllyAche malA AThavat nAhI)


Special behaviour for preposition “while”
Suffix for “while” is “ताना (tAnA)

“While” can also be used in two ways
1) Do not stop while I speak
2) Do not stop while I am speaking

In first sentence the verb is simple present tense.
In such cases the suffix in “ताना (tAnA)
While speak :- बोलताना (bolatAnA )
While do :- करताना (karatAnA )
While dance :- नाचताना ( nAchatAnA )

In second sentence the verb is present continuous tense.
I am speaking -> मी बोलत असतो (mI bolat asato )  
(Note :- Refer section "sentence with "Used to")
Suffix ताना (tAnA) gets added to “असतो” and it becomes असताना (asatAnA)

So in short for second style the verbs will be as shown below:-

While speaking :- बोलत असताना (bolat asatAnA)
While doing :- करत असताना (karat asatAnA)
While dancing :- नाचत असताना ( nAchat asatAnA)


Special behaviour for preposition “to”
Suppose we are telling someone “Come to see this movie”, “Come to drink coffee”.
Here we used “to see”, “to drink” , we did not use “seeing”,”drinking” etc.
Similarly in Marathi we use different form for preposition “to”
We append आयला (AyalA) to verb

to see     :- बघायला  (baghAyalA )
to do      :- करायला (karAyalA)
to speak :- बोलायला (bolAyalA)
to dance :- नाचायला(nAchAyalA)

Come to see this photo    :- फोटो बघायला ये  (phoTo baghAyalA ye )
Come to eat with me       :- माझ्याबरोबर जेवायला ये (mAjhyAbarobar jevAyalA ye)


Special behaviour for “and”

In English we use preposition "and" to join to two verbs to indicate one action followed by another. E.g. “come and see this”, “sit and eat it” etc.



In Marathi we will suffix ऊन  (Un) to first verb to indicate continuation.



e.g. 
Sit and watch          :-  बसून बघ (basUn bagh)

come and go                  :- येऊन जा  (yeUn jA)

he came and saw it        :- त्याने येऊन बघितले (tyAne yeUn baghitale )

They will go and check it :- ते जाऊन तपासतील (te jAUn tapAsatIl)

smile and say                :- हसून बोल  ( hasoon bol)

Special behavior for "till","until"

In English we say "wait till he comes", "do not stop until I say 
"Till","Until" in Marathi is पर्यंत (paryaMt )
In Marathi we will suffix ए(e)  to verb stem. If verb stem does not end with vowel अ(a) then it is suffixed with ई(I).
e.g.
till I speak -> मी बोले पर्यंत (mI bole paryMt )
until she smiles -> ती हसे पर्यंत ( tI hase paryaMt )
till he goes -> तो जाई पर्यंत ( to jAI paryaMt )
until we come -> आम्ही येई पर्यंत ( AmhI yeI paryaMt )



Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6l9IgZnd_FI


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