Short forms in spoken Marathi

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While speaking any language the pronunciations can be slightly different than bookish/written language. We tend to use short form of verbs.

e.g. in English

He will – He’ ll

I had – I’d  etc.



Similarly in Marathi while speaking form of verbs or form of words are pronounced bit differently. It is discussed below :-



1) In present continuous tense आहे (Ahe) or its forms are generally pronounced as ‘य’ (y) along with main verb

e.g. मी करतो आहे (mI karato Ahe) ->  मी करतोय  (mI karatoy)

here करतो आहे is changed to करतो + य i.e. करतोय (karatoy)



Similarly 

मी करते आहे (mI karate Ahe) ->  मी करतेय / करत्ये (mI karatey/karatye )

आम्ही करतो आहोत (AmhI karato Ahot) -> आम्ही करतोय (AmhI karatoy)
तू करतो आहेस (tU karato Ahes)-> तू करतोयस (tU karatoyas)
तुम्ही करता आहात (tumhI karatA AhAt) -> तुम्ही करतायत (tumhI karatAyat)
त्या करत आहेत (tyA karat Ahet ) -> त्या करतायत (tyA karatAyat )

करतो
 आहे   -> 
करतोय 
करते आहे    -> करतेय / करत्ये
करतो आहोत  -> करतोय
करतो आहेस  -> करतोयस
करता आहात  -> करतायत
करत आहेत   -> करतायत


Examples in simple present tense :-

I am -> मी आहे (mI Ahe) -> मीये (mIye)

I am good -> मी चांगला आहे (mI chAMgalA Ahe) ->  मी चांगलाय (mI chAMgalAy)

He is ok ->  तो बरा आहे (to barA Ahe ) -> तो बराय ( to barAy )

I am not good -> मी चांगला नाही आहे (mI chAMgalA nAhI Ahe)   -> मी चांगला नाहिये (mI chAMgalA nAhiye)

I do not want -> मला नको आहे (malA nako Ahe) -> मला नकोय (malA nakoy)


मी आहे -> मीये 
चांगला आहे -> चांगलाय 
बरा आहे -> बराय 
नाही आहे -> नाहिये 
नको आहे -> नकोय 


2) In neuter gender words ending ए (e) is pronounced as अं (Am)

e.g. “Leaf” in Marathi is “पान “(pAn) . Its plural is “पाने(pAne).

While speaking “पाने(pAne) is pronounced as पानं(pAnM)



The last (n) with dot on it is pronounced as nasal sound.



Try to understand the pronounciation of last (n) with dot on it.

It is explained in details as "Rule 8) Use of अनुस्वार to indicate change in pronunciation in colloquial language." in lesson related to pronunciation of anusvAr 
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/pronunciation-of-anusvar.html




More examples
Trees -> झाडे (jhADe ) -> झाडं  (jhADaM)
watches -> घड्याळे -> (ghaDyALe ) -> घड्याळं (ghaDyALM )
cupboards -> कपाटे (kapATe) -> कपाटं (kapATaM)

Same is case for adjectives if applied to neuter words
my song :- माझे गाणे ( mAjhe gANe ) ->  माझं गाणं  ( mAjhaM gANaM )
Her cupboard :- तीचे कपाट (tIche kapAT ) -> तीचं कपाट (tIchaM kapAT )
Green forest :- हिरवे जंगल (hirave jaMgal ) -> हिरवं जंगल (hiravaM jaMgal )

3) If subject or object according to which the form of verb is created, is of neuter gender, then ending with (e) is pronounced as अं (Am).
The way of pronunciation is same as we we seen in second rule.
Lets see its applicability.

e.g. That tree moves -> ते झाड हलते (te jhAD halate)
Here, object is “झाड” (jhAD) which is nuter gender.
So verb हलते (halate) can be pronounced as हलतं (halataM)

This rule is applicable only when subject or object according to which verb is formed, is of neuter gender.  Not otherwise.

e.g. That girls moves  -> ती मुलगी हलते  (tI mulagI halate)
Here subject according to which verb is formed is girls i.e. femininfe. So we will NOT say हलतं (halataM)

Another examples will make it clear :-
As we had seen in section of “Giving instructions formmaly”, suppose there is instruction
Please tell your name -> आपले नाव सांगावे (Apale nAv sAMgAve)
Here, object is “नाव” (nAv). It is of neuter gender.
So verb सांगावे(sAMgAve) can be pronounced as सांगावं(sAMgAvaM)

I want chocolate -> मला चॉकलेट हवे आहे (malA ch~okaleT have Ahe )
चॉकलेट is of neuter gender, so हवे(have ) can be pronounced as हवं(havaM)

Example applying rule 3 and then rule 1

That child is asking  -> ते मूल विचारते आहे (te mUl vichArate Ahe) -> ते मूल विचारतं आहे (te mUl vichArataM Ahe) -> ते मूल विचारतंय  (te mUl vichArataMy)

I want chocolate -> मला चॉकलेट हवे आहे (malA ch~okaleT have Ahe ) ->  मला चॉकलेट हवं आहे (malA ch~okaleT havaM Ahe ) -> मला चॉकलेट हवंय (malA ch~okaleT havaMy)


Butterfly is flying -> फुलपाखरू उडते आहे (phulapAkharU uDate Ahe) -> आहे फुलपाखरू उडतं आहे (phulapAkharU uDataM Ahe) -> फुलपाखरू उडतंय (phulapAkharU uDataMy)




विचारते आहे -> विचारतं आहे -> विचारतंय



उडते आहे   -> उडतं आहे    -> उडतंय


हवे आहे     -> हवं आहे  ->  हवंय 

Below table lists Combined suffix in spoken form for Present Continuous tense and example of verb करणे (karaNe)

Pronoun in English
Pronoun in Marathi
Suffix for common verbs in Simple Present
Form of 
असणे(“asaNe”)
in Simple Present 
Combined suffix  and example for
Pre.Cont. Tense
I (male)
मी
तो
आहे
तोय(toy)

करतोय (karatoy )
I (female)
मी
ते
आहे
तेय/त्ये (tey / tye)

करतेय/करत्ये(karatey / karatye)
we
आम्ही
तो
आहोत
तोय(toy)

करतोय (karatoy )
we ( listener including)
आपण
तो
आहोत
तोय(toy)

करतोय (karatoy )
You (singular male)
तू
तोस
आहेस
तोयस(toyas)

करतोयस(karatoyas)
You (singular female)
तू
तेस


आहेस
तेयस/त्येस(teyas / tyes)

करतेयस / करत्येस (karateyas / karatyes )
You (plural)
तुम्ही
ता


आहात
ताय/तायत(tAy /  tAyat)

करताय / करतायत   (karatAy /  karatAyat   )
He / That (m.) / This (m.)  
तोतोहा
तो
आहे
तोय(toy)

करतोय(karatoy)
She / That (f.)/ This (f.) 
तीतीही
ते
आहे
तेय / त्ये (tey / tye )

करतेय /करत्ये(karatey /karatye)
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
तेतेहे
ते
आहे
तंय(taMy)

करतंय(karataMy)
They (Plural of He)  /Those (m.) /These (m.)
तेतेहे




तात





आहेत





तायत(tAyat)

करतायत(karatAyat)

They (Plural of She) / Those (f.) / These (f.) 
त्यात्या / ह्या
They (Plural of it) / Those (n.) / These (n.)
तीतीही


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJnghEGWjTQ



Similarly in present perfect tense short forms are said as :-


Pronoun in English
Pronoun

in

Marathi
Suffix for Simple Past Tense
Form of 
असणे(“asaNe”)
in Simple Present 
Combined suffix
in spoken
language
I (male)
मी
लो lo
आहे Ahe
लोय (loy)
I (female)
मी
ले le
आहे Ahe
लेय/ल्ये (ley/lye)
we
आम्ही /आपण
लो lo
आहोत Ahot
लोयत/लोत (loyat/lot)
You
(singular male)
तू
लास lAs
आहेस Ahes
लेलायस (lelAyas)
You
(singular female)
तू
लीस lIa
आहेस Ahes
लेलीयेस (lelIyes)
You (plural)
तुम्ही
लात lAt
आहात AhAt
लेलायत (lelAyat)
He / That (m.) /
This (m.)  
तो / तो / हा
ला lA
आहे Ahe
लेलाय (lelAy)
She / That (f.)/
This (f.) 
ती / ती / ही
ली lI
आहे Ahe
लेलिये (leliye)
It / That(n.) /
This (n.)
ते / ते / हे
ले le
आहे Ahe
लेलंय (lelaMy)
They (Plural of He)  /
Those (m.) /
These (m.)
ते / ते / हे
ले le




आहेत Ahet

लेलेयत (leleyat)
They (Plural of She) /
Those (f.) /
These (f.) 
त्या / त्या / ह्या
ल्या lyA
आहेत Ahet

लेल्यायत/लेल्यात (lelyAyat/lelyAt)
They (Plural of it) /
Those (n.) /
These (n.)
ती / ती / ही
ली lI
आहेत Ahet

लेलीयेत (lelIyet)



Examples of present perfect tense for all pronouns and verb हसणे(hasaNe)


Usual sentence
Spoken language sentence
मी हसलो आहे (mI hasalo Ahe)
मी हसलोय (mI hasaloy)
मी हसले आहे (mI hasale Ahe)
मी हसलेय/हसल्ये (mI hasaley/hasalye)
आम्ही/आपण हसलो आहोत
 (AmhI/ApaN hasalo Ahot)
आम्ही/आपण हसलोयत/हसलोत
(AmhI/ApaN hasaloyat/hasalot)
तू हसलेला आहेस (tU hasalelA Ahes)
तू हसलेलायस (tU hasalelAyas)
तू हसलेली आहेस (tU hasalelI Ahes)
तू हसलेलीयेस (tU hasalelIyes)
तुम्ही हसलेला आहात (tumhI hasalelA Ahaat)
तुम्ही हसलेलायत (tumhI hasalelAyat)
तो हसलेला आहे (to hasalelA Ahe)
तो हसलेलाय (to hasalelAy)
ती हसलेली आहे (tI hasalelI Ahe)
ती हसलेलिये (tI hasaleliye)
ते हसलेले आहे (te hasalele Ahe)
ते हसलेलंय (te hasalelaMy)
ते हसलेले आहेत (te hasalele Ahe)
ते हसलेलेयत (te hasaleleyat)
त्या हसलेल्या आहेत (tyA hasalelyA Ahet)
त्या हसलेल्यायत/हसलेल्यात
(tyA hasalelyAyat/hasalelyAt)
ती हसलेली आहेत (tI hasalelI Ahet)
ती हसलेलीयेत (tI hasalelIyet)

In verb forms like हसलोयत,हसलेलायस,हसलेलेयत,हसलेल्यायत i.e. where you see full 'य'(ya); its pronunciation is very short; as if it is added with next character. i.e. As if written 

हसलोय्त (hasaloyt ), हसलेलाय्स (hasalelAys), हसलेलाय्त (hasalelAyt), हसलेलेय्त(hasaleleyt), हसलेल्याय्त (hasalelyAyt)  
But it written completely as shown in table.


Note :- In Marathi there is a saying "भाषा दर दहा कोसांवर बदलते" means  "Language changes on every 10 Km". :) 
So you can surely see changes in spoken language based on location, caste etc. 

e.g. People from Vidarbha(Nagpur) region generally use "ए ending" words as it is.

People from Marathwada region make further short forms e.g. 
गेले होते -> गेलं होतं -> गेल्तं (geltM)
आले होते -> आलं होतं -> आल्तं (AltM) 

In southern Maharashtra they make different short forms
गेले आहे -> गेलंय -> गेलया (gelayA)
आले आहे -> आलंय -> आलया (AlayA)
etc. 
So it is difficult to document all such things. I have given above general practices in spoken language version of standard Marathi. 

Listen second part of this lesson online at 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SCuBgPher70

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
***************************************************************

9 comments:

  1. Hi Kaushik,

    When I hear Marathi being spoken, I can't hear the nasal anusvAr at the end of the neuter adjectives or verbal endings. To me, it simply sounds like अ (a) on the end, instead of the way it is written as अं (aM), because I can't here any nasalization of the end vowel. So I was wondering if either of the three conditions apply below ---

    1) The anusvAr is simply used as an orthographic (writing) convention in the script in order to distinctly mark the neuter form visually in the written language?
    -- OR --
    2) Perhaps it was once a standard pronunciation that is no longer in use in modern colloquial Marathi?
    -- OR --
    3) The nasal pronunciation is only made by certain speakers of Marathi, either based on region/dialect or caste? (For instance, I thought I saw something on the internet one time claiming that only Brahmins, or maybe only Kokanastha Brahmins, actually pronounce true nasal vowels.)

    In any case, at your convenience, your insight would be much appreciated!

    Thanks,
    Chris

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Chris, Thanks for writing. You are right. Nasal sound is not always distinct; mostly it it just an elongated vowel.

      Actually when I wrote this lesson I could not understand how to explain it clearly. So I wrote it that way so that learner can get some little hint.

      Afterwards I modified the lesson related to anusvAr that clearly explains this as "Rule 8) Use of अनुस्वार to indicate change in pronunciation in colloquial language."

      But I forgot to update it here. Thanks for bringing it to my notice. I will update lessons.

      Actually your all 3 points are correct. anusvAr is used as an orthographic (writing) convention even if there is no clear nasal sound. And you mentioned Brahmins; especially Kokanastha Brahmins used to pronounce more nasal vowels. That is also correct. And because the dialect of Brahmins was the basis of modern standard Marathi language the extra anusvAr also came into standard Marathi but not nasal sounds. So even your second point is true.

      Delete
    2. Does video link mentioned in this post explains the sound correctly ? Or it is confusing ?

      Delete
    3. Also refer "Rule 8) Use of अनुस्वार to indicate change in pronunciation in colloquial language." of http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/pronunciation-of-anusvar.html

      Delete
    4. Your comments shows that that you are studying Marathi very seriously and in depth. By the way are you Chris Young, who had e-mailed me long back ?
      If not can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
    5. Hi Kaushik -- Yes, this is Chris Young :)

      Thanks Much for your answer !!

      I decided to post my question on the forum rather than via email because I thought the answer might be helpful to others as well, especially to those trying to learn Marathi in Mumbai, where almost everyone seems to use the neuter अं (aM) ending, except that it sounds no different than अ (a).

      In Pune, however, sometimes I would also hear the forms ending in ए (e) being used in speech for neuter adjectives and verbs, which I thought were used only in writing. Accordingly, I still wonder ---

      1) Is the ए ending also sometimes used in speech then, instead of अं?

      2) Does this vary by location, age, education level, social class and/or caste of the speaker?

      3) Furthermore, is the use of ए instead of अं in any way related to politeness or formality ?

      Thanks!
      Chris

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    6. Welcome back Chris !!
      Yes, it is good to discuss here so that other can benefit.

      "ए ending" words are standard word-forms/verb forms. So you can find them when someone is speaking. Whether to use full form is personal choice; but it doesn't sound "natural" as majority goes for shot-form.

      So it may sound more formal because in formal communications verbal/written we prefer full-forms.

      In Marathi there is a saying that "Language changes on every 10 Km". :)
      So you can surely see changes based on location, caste etc.

      e.g. People from Vidarbha(Nagpur) region generally use "ए ending" words
      .
      People from Marathwada region make further short forms e.g.
      गेले होते -> गेलं होतं -> गेल्तं (geltM)
      आले होते -> आलं होतं -> आल्तं (AltM)

      In southern Maharashtra they make different short forms
      गेले आहे -> गेलंय -> गेलया (gelayA)
      आले आहे -> आलंय -> आलया (AlayA)

      Delete
  2. Oh wow, very interesting !!
    I appreciate you mentioning some of the specific dialectal/regional forms.

    By the way, how exactly is that expression "Language changes on every 10 Km" actually said in Marathi?

    Thanks!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. भाषा दर दहा कोसांवर बदलते.
      "kos" is an old measurement of distance.

      Delete