Working with nouns - Prepositions in Marathi

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As we had seen that there is change in form of pronouns while adding preposition which is called सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi 

Similarly there is change in nouns i.e. nouns also have सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi
It also depends on gender and multiplicity of noun.

Below table summarizes it.

If it the noun is not matching below rukes then its सामान्य रूप is noun itself.


Gender
Singular form
Ending vowel
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi will
end with
Singular Noun – its सामान्य रूप Example
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi plural will
end with
Plural Noun – its सामान्य रूप Example
Masculine
 (A)
(A)
माठ - माठा
mATh– mAThA

e.g
pot - for pot
माठ - माठासाठी

आं (AM)

माठ - माठां
mATh –mAThAMsAThI

e.g. pots -  for pots
माठ माठांसाठी

Masculine
(A)/ ( I)  
या  (yA)
फळा  - फळ्या
phaLA – phaLyA

e.g.
board - for board
फळा फळ्यासाठी



पक्षी - पक्ष्या

e.g bird – for bird
पक्षी - पक्ष्यासाठी 


यां
(yAM)
फळे - फळ्यां
phaLe – phaLyAM

e.g.
boards - for boards

फळेफळ्यांसाठी




पक्षी पक्ष्यां
e.g birds – for birds

पक्षी -पक्ष्यांसाठी 

Masculine / Neuter
ऊस (Us)










ऊल (Ul) 
वसा (vasA )









वला (valA )
पाऊस – पावसा
(pAUs - pAvasA )

e.g. rain – for rain
पाऊस - पावसासाठी 



पाउल - पावला 
( pAul - pAvalA  )

e.g. 
foot – for foot 
पाउल – पावलासाठी



वसां (vasAM)









वलां ( valAM)

पाऊस – पावसां
pAUs - pAvasAM 

e.g. rains -  for rains
पाऊस - पावसांसाठी 



पावले - पवलां
( pAvale – pavalAM )

e.g feet – for feet
पावले - पवलांसाठी 
Feminine
(a)
(e)














( I)


माळ माळे

mAL – mALe
e.g.
garland - for garland

माळ माळेसाठी


मांजरमांजरी (mAMjar - mAMjarI)
e.g cat – for cat
मांजर - मांजरीसाठी
(mAMjar – mAMjarIsAThI )
आं (AM)












ईं (IM)

माळा - माळां


e.g garlands – for garlands
माळा माळांसाठी


मांजर - मांजरीं
e.g. cats – for cats
मांजर - मांजरींसाठी



 
Neuter
(a)/
(U)
(A)
पान पाना
pAn – pAnA

e.g. leaf – for leaf
पान पानासाठी



पिल्लू - पिल्ला
pillU - pillA

e.g.
chick – for chick
पिल्लू  - पिल्लासाठी 




आं (AM)

पाने पानां
pAne pAnAM

e.g leaves – for leaves
पाने पानांसाठी


पिल्ले  - पिल्लां 



e.g. chicken – for chicken

पिल्ले - पिल्लांसाठी 

Neuter
(e)
या  (yA)
पाते -पात्या 

pAte -  pAtyA 

e.g balde – for blades
पाते -पात्यासाठी 


यां
(yAM)
पाती - पात्यां  
pAtI pAtyAM  

e.g blades – for blades
पाती पात्यांसाठी  





As we had seen in previous section of plurals, for Feminine nouns ending with (a) there are two ways of creating plural. Continuing same logic, for those words, there are two different "सामान्य रूप" one ending with  (e) and other ending with  ( I)



If it the noun is not matching any of the above rules then its सामान्य रूप is noun itself.
e.g Broom in Marathi is झाडू (jhADU). It is masculine ending with
(U). It is not mentioned in above rule. So its सामान्य रूप is noun itself i.e. झाडू (jhADU).
e.g. broom – for broom

झाडू  - झाडूसाठी


As we had learnt before List of few frequently used prepositions


Preposition in English
Preposition in Marathi
about
बद्दल (baddal )
after
नंतर (naMtar )
aside
बाजुला (bAjulA )
before
आधी (AdhI )
below
खाली (khAlI )
for
साठी (sAThI )
from
पासून / कडून (pAsUn / kaDUn )
in / at 
(*Refer note below)
आत / (At / t )
like
सारखा (sArakhA )
outside
बाहेर (bAher )
till
पर्यंत (paryaMt )
without
शिवाय (shivAy )

The "To" preposition is ला (lA ) for singular and  ना  ( nA ) for plural
e.g. To chick ->पिल्लाला   To chicken -> पिल्लांना  
       spear-> भाला (bhAlA ) it is masculine
      To spear -> भाल्याला (bhAlyAlA) To spears -> भाल्यांना ( bhAlyAMnA )


Now see how the form changes will happen with preposition is used along with pronoun and noun

e.g. To his fort

fort -> किल्ला (killA)

to fort --> किल्ल्याला (killyAlA )

his fort --> त्याचा किल्ला 

to his fort --> त्याच्या किल्ल्याला (tyAchyA killyAlA )




You can see that  सामान्य रूप of त्याचा is त्याच्या

त्याचा is masculine ending with (A) So as per above rules its form becomes त्याच्या

This way you can try creating sentences. There are many exceptions to above rules, you will sense it as and when you will read more and more Marathi.


Another Style. Extension of above
As we had seen in previous post, when preposition is used with pronoun the words become त्याच्यासाठी (tyAchyAsAThI), , तीच्यामुळे(tIchyAmuLe), त्यांच्यानंतर ( tyAMchyAnaMtar ) etc. As you can see there is च्या (chyA) in every word. Because of this some people tend to use च्या( chyA ) before every preposition used with noun. 
e.g. 
For fort -> किल्ल्यासाठी  (killyAsAThI )   or किल्ल्याच्यासाठी  (killyAchyAsAThI )
On bucket -> बादलीवर  (badalIvar )      or बादलीच्यावर (badalIchyAvar)
Under table -> टेबलाखाली  (TebalAkhAlI ) or टेबलाच्याखाली  (TebalAchyAkhAlI )


Both ways are right, but try to use first way i.e. without adding च्या (chyA) to preposition 


Note for preposition In/at
In table it is written as आत/ (At/t )
When you are using च्या( chyA ) with सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp); we use word "आत(At)"
But if we do not use च्या( chyA )  then we just append "त(t)" to word form.
e.g.
In/At fort -> किल्ल्या  (killyAt )  or किल्ल्याच्या आत  (killyAchyA At )
In/At bucket -> बादली  (badalIvar )  or बादलीच्या आत (badalIchyAvar) etc.

For "at home" we generally say घरात (gharAt) or a special way as घरी(gharI).

So some people may ask; "what is the difference between “आत” and “ई”? 
To be precise; "आत" is used to indicate position "inside" and "ई” is used to indicate preposition "at"
e.g. 
Gold is buried inside home ->सोने घरात पुरले आहे. (sone gharAt purale Ahe.
Tomorrow I am at home -> उद्या मी घरी आहे (udyA mI gharI Ahe)
But you can find both forms used invariably. 

In very few cases "वर"(var) is also used to indicate preposition "at". There is no precise rule when people prefer "वर"(var). But as per my observation when they are giving not-so-precise information or indicating a surrounding they use "वर"(var).
e.g.
I saw John at the airport -> मी जॉनला एअरपोर्टवर/विमानतळावर बघितलं (mI j~onalA earaporTavar/vimAnataLAvar baghitalaM)
Ladies met at village well -> बायका गावाच्या विहिरीवर भेटल्या (bAyakA gAvAchyA vihirIvar bheTalyA)
Children are playing at/nearby river -> मुले नदीवर खेळत आहेत (mule nadIvar kheLat Ahet)
So more you read Marathi you may get more examples. 



I have started creating list of Marathi nouns, their gender and plural forms and सामान्य रूप . List is uploaded as an excel sheet at
Download the excel sheet to view it correctly.
Excel sheet is not up-to-date. I will keep adding more and more nouns. So please check this link frequently to see newly added nouns.

[Update on 1st Feb 2015]
I Happy to announce my “Marathi Dictionary for Learners” app on Gogle Play. 
It can be downloaded quickly from 
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.learnmarathi.dictionary 

This dictionary provides all the details for every noun viz. gender, plural, saamanyrup.
At present this dictionary has 1105 English words and 1233 Marathi words. I will keep updating the app to add more and more words. 
Still it may happen that word you search is still not added. You may try words "platform", "action","collection" , "आदेश", "आवाहन" , "सावली" to quickly test of this dictionary.
So I request you to download and install the dictionary and let me know your feedback.



***************************************************************
Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
***************************************************************

4 comments:

  1. Hi Kaushik,
    Are you planning to add a YouTube video for the examples in this lesson?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No. As this lesson has more grammatical concepts and less of examples.

      Delete
  2. Also, for the example, the English transliteration needs to be fixed: In/At fort -> किल्ल्यात (killyAsAThI ) or किल्ल्याच्या आत (killyAchyAsAThI )

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for pointing it out. I have rectified it.
      Are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete