Using plurals to indicate respect आदरार्थी बहुवचन (AdarArthI bahuvachan )

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In Marathi, plurals are used to indicate respect. This is called आदरार्थी बहुवचन (AdarArthI bahuvachan )
e.g. If you are talking about prime minister of you are country. In English you will say. 
"He is Prime Minister. He is speaking". 
As seen before in Marathi, "He" in English is तो (to) in Marathi. So In Marathi, literal translation will be 
तो पंतप्रधान आहे. तो बोलत आहे ( to paMtapradhAn Ahe. to bolat Ahe  )
But because you are talking about P.M. and you will want say these sentences with respect, so actually you will use plural of तो (to) which is ते(te). And sentence will be formed accordingly. 
So Marathi sentence will be 
ते पंतप्रधान आहेत. ते बोलत आहेत ( te paMtapradhAn Ahet. te bolat Ahet ). 
Which if translated literally in English, it will be "They are Prime Minister. They are speaking". Which sounds odd in English. But in Marathi it is natural and correct way. And it should be followed when you are talking with an elder person or with any one who you want to give respect.

Similarly if you are talking about lady 
She is good -> ती चांगली आहे ( tI chAMgalI Ahe )
When saying with respect; plural of is ती(tI) is त्या(tyA). So sentence will be 
त्या चांगल्या आहेत( tyA chAMgalyA Ahet ). 

Similarly "How are you" is translated as 
तू कसा आहेस ( tU kasA Ahes  )
Plural of तू (tU) is तुम्ही( tumhI). So question with respect will be asked as  
तुम्ही कसे आहात ( tumhI kase AhAt )

In old time few learned persons or rich person, used to address themselves with respect. So they used आम्ही ( AmhI) which is "we" in English while talking about themselves.
So 
I am coming -> मी येतो आहे ( mI yeto Ahe  )
Giving oneself respect they used to say आम्ही येत आहोत ( AmhI yet Ahot )
In editorials of Marathi newspaper you will find editor calling himself आम्ही (AmhI)
But nowadays in day-to-day communication nobody calls himself आम्ही ( AmhI)  as it looks like boasting.

I have listed pairs here just for reference :- 

मी -आम्ही mI -AmhI
तू -तुम्ही ( tU -tumhI )
तो - ते ( to - te )
ती -त्या ( tI -tyA )
ते -ती  ( te -tI  )


Even if sentences does not have pronoun; it should be formed with plural way to indicate respect. 
e.g.
Shivaji Maharaj was great
Literal translation -> शिवाजी महाराज महान होता ( shivAjI mahArAj mahAn hotA)
Correct way with respect ->
शिवाजी महाराज महान होते ( shivAjI mahArAj mahAn hote)

Kaushik is my teacher Literal translation ->  कौशिक माझा शिक्षक आहे ( kaushik mAjhA shikshak Ahe )
Correct way with respect -> कौशिक माझे शिक्षक आहेत ( kaushik mAjhe shikshak Ahet )


Note that, we do not use plural of main noun. Plural form of only pronoun, adjective, verb is used. 
Your mother is good (with respect) -> तुझ्या आई चांगल्या आहेत (tujhyA AI chAMgalyA Ahet).
We used आई(AI) and not its plural i.e  आया (AyA)

Another example, 
She is my husband's sister -> त्या माझ्या नणंद आहेत (tyA mAjhyA naNaMd Ahet). We will not use "नणंदा"(naNaMdA) which is plural of नणंद (naNaMd)

But when you use a preposition with noun, we use plural.
e.g. To mother (literal translation) -> आईला (AIlA)
To mother (with respect) ->आईंना (AIMnA)

For teacher (literal translation) -> शिक्षकासाठी (shikShakAsAThI)
For teacher (with respect) ->शिक्षकांसाठी (shikShakAMsAThI )

I have thoroughly discussed preposition in later chapter. So revisit this part after you are clear with that concept.


*********** Using  आपण (ApaN)  instead of तुम्ही(tumhI)*************
When speaking very formally or in very formal written communication  instead of तुम्ही(tumhI) we use आपण (ApaN). Rest of the sentence structure remains same. 
How are you ->
(With respect)  तुम्ही कसे आहात ( tumhI kase AhAt )
(Very formal communication  ) ->  आपण कसे आहात ( ApaNkase AhAt )

You are doing work ->
(With respect)  तुम्ही काम करत आहात ( tumhI kAm karat Ahat )
(Very formal communication  ) ->  आपण काम करत आहात ( ApaN kAm karat Ahat )

What do you want ->
(With respect)  तुम्हाला काय पाहिजे ? ( tumhAlA kAy pAhije)
(Very formal communication  ) -> आपल्याला काय पाहिजे ? ( ApalyAlA kAy pAhije )


Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odSie1Zt-BU

 
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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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13 comments:

  1. When you change "to paMtapradhAn Ahe" => "te paMtapradhAn Ahet" and/or "kaushik mAjhA shikshak Ahe" => "kaushik mAjhe shikshak Ahet", do you leave the nouns themselves, "paMtapradhAn and "shikshak", in the singular form, or is it just a coincidence that "paMtapradhAn and "shikshak" have the same singular and plural forms?

    In other words, if the nouns being used have different singular and plural forms, would you say "tujhyA AI chAngalI strI Ahet" OR "tujhyA AyA chAngalI strI Ahet" OR "tujhyA AYA chAngalyA stryA Ahet", if you're trying to say something like "Your mother is a good woman"?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. We do not use plural of main noun. Plural of only pronoun, adjective, verb is used.
      Your mother is good (with respect) -> तुझ्या आई चांगल्या आहेत (tujhyA AI chAMgalyA Ahet)

      Another example,
      She is my husband's sister -> त्या माझ्या नणंद आहेत (tyA mAjhyA naNaMd Ahet). We will not use "नणंदा" which is plural of नणंद


      But when you use a preposition with noun, we use plural.
      e.g. To mother (literal translation) -> आईला (AIlA)
      To mother (with respect) ->आईंना (AIMnA)

      For teacher (literal translation) -> शिक्षकासाठी (shikShakAsAThI)
      For teacher (with respect) ->शिक्षकांसाठी (shikShakAMsAThI )

      Delete
  2. Ahe is for singular and Ahet is for plural that I understood, but what is the difference between Ahet & AhAt? Thanks in advance.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. For You(plural) आहात
      For They आहेत

      Are you learning marathi using my blog ?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    2. Yes I am. I would love to master the fluency in marathi. I am from Mumbai.

      Delete
    3. Good. I will like to know more about your marathi learning and experience with my blog/videos.
      Can you plz mail me on learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      - kaushik

      Delete
  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please refer lesson related to perfect tense. These are 2 different forms based on gender

      Delete
  4. Hi Kaushik,
    This is Kartik from Mumbai and I am learning Marathi from your website. Impressive work done. I have a query

    In one of the examples above: 'She is good' (w/o respect) is translated in Marathi as 'Ti changali aahe' and 'She is good' (with respect) is translated as 'Tya changalya aahet'.

    Isn't the pronoun for representing simple present tense pertaining to 'she' and 'they'....'te' and 'tya' respectively. Why are we using 'li' and 'lya' in this case? Are the some exceptions?

    Thanks
    Kartik

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Kartik,
      Thanks for your comment and appreciation. I am happy to help you.

      Regrading your question:-
      She = "tI" ; its plural is "tyA"

      For more details please refer
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/pronouns-articles-in-marathi.html

      In Marathi adjective form also changes as per gender-multiplicity of noun.

      For more details refer
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/adjectives.html

      Let me know if that answers your query.

      I will like to know more about your marathi learning and experience with my blog/videos so far.
      Can you plz mail me on learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  5. Hi Kaushik in one example you said tumhI is with respect for tu. But in the last example you said tumhAlA. How to know when to use these words exactly

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "tumhAlA" is form of pronoun "tumhI". Please refer lesson.
      Please refer
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/preposition-to.html
      and
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/using-ver-to-wantto-need.html

      Let me know if it answers your query.

      May I know your name please. Are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

      Delete