Simple Past Tense in Marathi - Part 2

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We learnt the simple past tense for verbs without noun/objective.
Now let us learn other type.

RULE FOR FORMING VERB :- 
Verb is formed as per gender and singular/Plural of objective.

Example 1)
Consider past tense example I read letter.
Here letter is noun/objective.
So in Marathi the verb read i.e वाच (vAch) will be formed according to letter
Letter is third person singular non-gender ( i.e similar to it )

If you refer previous chart, suffix for it in Simple Past tense is ले ( le )
So verb + suffix -> वाच (vAch) + ले ( le ) --> वाचले ( vAchale )

Example 2) I opened box
Objective is Box which is masculine i.e. similar to he
So If you refer previous chart, suffix for he in Simple Past tense is ला ( lA )
So verb + suffix -> उघड (ughaD)  + ला ( lA )   -->  उघडला (ughaDalA)

Example 3) "I opened boxes"
Objective is Boxes which is masculine plural i.e. similar to “They(plural of he
So If you refer previous chart, suffix for  They(plural of he) in Simple Past tense is लेle )
So verb + suffix -> उघड (ughaD)  + "ले" ( le )    -->  उघडले (ughaDale)


RULE FOR FORMING SUBJECTIVE(doer of action)
1) For I, We, you there is no change.
2) For he in sentence we will use त्याने ( tyAne )
3) For she in sentence we will use तीने ( tIne )
4) For It in sentence we will use त्याने ( tyAne )
5) For They in sentence we will use त्यांनी ( tyAMnI )
6) For other proper nouns we will suffix ने (ne)
e.g. Peter opened box. Then in sentence we will use Peter + ने (ne) => पीटरने (pITarane)
Harry opened box Then in sentence we will use Harry + ने (ne) => हॅरीने (h~arIne)
7) For plurals of proper names नी ( nI ) is suffixed
E.g. Cars made noise.  Cars à गाड्या ( gADyA )
So in simple past tense sentence we will use गाड्या( gADyA )+नी( nI )  --> गाड्यांनी (gADyAMnI)

Below has this details in tabular format :-  


Pronoun in English
Pronoun

in

Marathi
Form of

Subjective in past tense
Transliteration
I (male)
मी
मी
mI
I (female)
मी
मी
mI
we
आम्ही
आम्ही
AmhI
we ( listener including)
आपण
आपण
AmhI
You (singular male)
तू
तू
tU
You (singular female)
तू
तू
tU
You (plural)
तुम्ही
तुम्ही
tumhI
He / That (m.) / This (m.)  
तो / तो / हा
त्याने
tyAne
She / That (f.)/ This (f.) 
ती / ती / ही
तीने
tIne
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
ते / ते / हे
त्याने
tyAne
They (Plural of He)  /Those (m.) /These (m.)
ते / ते / हे
त्यांनी
tyAMnI
They (Plural of She) / Those (f.) / These (f.) 
त्या / त्या / ह्या
त्यांनी
tyAMnI
They (Plural of it) / Those (n.) / These (n.)
ती / ती / ही
त्यांनी
tyAMnI


Sentence formation will be
Form of Subjective          Objective        Verb+Suffix as per objective
मी ( mI )                          पत्र (patra  )    वाच (vAch)  + ले ( le )  à वाचले ( vAchale )

I read letter --> मी पत्र वाचले

Subjective          Objective        Verb+Suffix as per objective
त्याने (tyAne)         खोका (khokA)    उघड (ughaD)  + ला ( lA )  à उघडला (ughaDalA)

He opened box --> त्याने खोका उघडला



Examples  :-
I painted picture             मी चित्र रंगवले ( mI chitra raMgavale )
I ate maggi                     मी मॅगी खाल्ली (mI m~agI khAllI )
They told story               त्यांनी गोष्ट सांगितली (tyAMnI goShTa sAMgitalI
She opened door            तीने दरवाजा उघडला (tIne daravAjA ughaDalA)
We waved flags              आम्ही झेंडे हलवले (AmhI jheMDe halavale)



When creating sentences for "You(Singular)" extra स(s) is appended to verb form.
When creating sentences for "You(Plural)" extra त(t) is appended to verb form.
Examples :-
I painted picture                   मी चित्र रंगवले ( mI chitra raMgavale )
You(singu.) painted picture    तू चित्र रंगवलेस ( tU chitra raMgavales )
You(plu.) painted picture        तुम्ही  चित्र रंगवले ( tumhI chitra raMgavalet )
 
I ate maggi                     मी मॅगी खाल्ली (mI m~agI khAllI )
You(singu.) ate maggi      तू मॅगी खाल्ली(tU m~agI khAllIs )
You(plu.) ate maggi         तुम्ही मॅगी खाल्ली (tumhI m~agI khAllIt ) 
 
They told story               त्यांनी गोष्ट सांगितली (tyAMnI goShTa sAMgitalI)
You(singu.) told story      तू गोष्ट सांगितली (tU goShTa sAMgitalIs)
You(plu.) told story         तुम्ही गोष्ट सांगितली (tumhI goShTa sAMgitalIt) 



Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPrPvE2G16E




Exercise: Try creating sentences with different verbs using above rules. Crosscheck them by creating same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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22 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. Thanks Ramdas for appreciation.
      From your surname, you seem to be Marathi person. So just curious are you learning Marathi using this blog ?

      I would like to hear more feedback from you about my blog.
      Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  2. Hi ,

    As per the rules in part 1 of past tense example 3 in the above chapter i.e. i opened boxes what we should use? Lee or Le (As per my understanding it should be Le), Please verify.

    Thanks
    Pradeep G

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes, you are right. It should be उघडले (ughaDale). I rectified it. Thanks for bringing it to my notice.
      It is nice to see that you are studying Marathi very keenly.
      I would like to hear more feedback from you about my blog.
      Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  3. Sir ,
    I am a south indian. I know a few languages besides my mother tongue.
    I do not know another site which teaches a language as yours.
    I am deeply indebted to you for helping me learn Marathi.
    I touch your feet in devotion. Shri Gurubhyonnamah.
    R.S.Sharma

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Mr. Sharma, I am really overwhelmed by your words.
      I would like to hear more about your Marathi learning and feedback from you about my blog.
      Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  4. Can you please elaborate on why गाड्या( gADyA )+नी( nI ) is गाड्यांनी (gADyAMnI) and not gADyAnI?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "नी" is actually appended to "deflected form of plural" which is गाड्यां.

      Refer
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/working-with-nouns-prepositions.html
      In this lesson the concept is explained in detail.

      May I know your name plz. Are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

      Delete
  5. hello sir
    really awesome site its works for me i have some confussion solved it.... from these site
    thanks a lot

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for appreciation. May I know your name please?

      I would like to know more about your Marathi learning and your feedback. Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      - Kaushik

      Delete
  6. In Hindi, we have the rule to add 'ने' to the doer of action irrespective of the person (1st, 2nd or 3rd)and it has the rule to add 'ने' only when the following questions have answers in that statement, like 'what' and 'who' and it has also the exceptions not to add 'ने' to the doer of action, for 'ला', 'बोल', 'मूल', 'लग', 'सक' and 'चुक' even though the statement will have answers for this.

    my questions is 'does Marathi have the same exceptions, please explain

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sorry I could not understand your question correctly. Can you please elaborate with full sentence example.

      Also may I know your name please?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    2. Let us translate "I TALKED", "I BROUGHT". Pure Hindi translation should be "मैंने बोला", "मैंने लाया", because they have answers for either “who talked” or “what talked” and “who brought” or “what brought”. But we say only "मैं बोला", "मैं लाया", because "बोल", "ला" are exempted from the rule. But we definitely say "मैंने कहा","मैंने किया" etc., Is there any similar rules in Marathi for simple past tense

      Delete
    3. No such exception in Marathi.

      "Anonymous" your name plz. It is good to know whom i am communicating so that context of previous discussion and level of understanding is known.
      So alway specify ur name.

      Delete
  7. Mohan Lakshmanan from Sydney and i am learning Marathi from your website. I like your literal translation for Marathi. I learnt Hindi in that way only.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Ohhh ok its you. We had email conversation too. Thanks. Plz always mention ur name in future posts.

      Delete
  8. Sundar Viwanathan here. Sorry I should have posted my question here. Question. why do we say sometimes "popatane vicharle"? What is the object (noun) here? Thanks...I am confused. Sometimes we have to vicharla...so in "popatane vicharle" the object is the "words spoken"? Thanks...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "popatane vicharle" there is no explicit object. So it it assumed to be neuter-singular. So verb form is "vicharle"

      "popatane prashn vichArlA" .... here object is "prashn" which is masculine-singular. So verb form is "vichArlA"

      I hope it helps.

      As i had said in my previous comment, I would like to know more about your Marathi learning and experience with my blog. Would you mind sending me mail on learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    2. Thank you. I will email tonight. Sundar

      Delete
    3. Give me a couple days..I am a little busy. Thanks. Sundar

      Delete
  9. How do we create past tense sentences when the object is a living being? for e.g. I did not recognize you.
    will then subject be taken like gender neutral?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Plz refer this lesson
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2013/05/sentences-with-person-or-living-things.html?m=1

      Let me know if it helps.

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete