Simple Past Tense in Marathi - Part 1

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Friends, for learning past tense you need to put extra attention. Because, Past tense has comparatively different structure than other Tense. 
Also there are multiple exceptions to common rules. So be more attentive.

Let us start.
In Simple Present , Continuous Present, Simple Future and Continuous future tense; the verb is formed depending on the Nominative i.e. doer of the action. But in past tense there is some difference.

In Simple past tense there 2 types of statements.
Type 1) Verbs which has nouns/objective
e.g. I ate mango.
Here I is subjective/Nominative and mango is objective.

Type 2) Verbs which do not have nouns/objective
e.g. I speak.
Here I is subjective (Nominative) . The verb speak doe not need noun/objective

For 1st kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of objective
And in 2nd kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of Pronoun/subjective/Nominative


Sentence without Objective are formed as
Pronoun            Verb+Suffix for Simple Past Tense

e.g. For We the suffix in Simple Past tense is लो ( lo )
So for verb चाल(chAl) the Past tense will be
चाल(chAl) +  लो ( lo )= चाललो (chAlalo)
The full sentence
we walked --> आम्ही (AmhI)  चाल(chAl) + लो ( lo )
--> आम्ही चाललो (AmhI chAlalo)

Below table lists all the suffixes :-

Pronoun in English
Pronoun

in

Marathi
Suffix for Simple Past Tense
Transliteration
I (male)
मी
लो
 lo


I (female)
मी
ले
 le
we
आम्ही
लो
 lo
we ( listener including)
आपण
लो
 lo
You (singular male)
तू
लास
 lAs
You (singular female)
तू
लीस
 lIs
You (plural)
तुम्ही
लात
 lAt
He / That (m.) / This (m.)  
तो / तो / हा
ला
 lA
She / That (f.)/ This (f.) 
ती / ती / ही
ली
 lI
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
ते / ते / हे
ले
 le
They (Plural of He)  /Those (m.) /These (m.)
ते / ते / हे
ले
 le
They (Plural of She) / Those (f.) / These (f.) 
त्या / त्या / ह्या
ल्या
 lyA
They (Plural of it) / Those (n.) / These (n.)
ती / ती / ही
ली
 lI

Examples :-
I (male) spoke.                   मी बोललो(mI bolalo)
I (female) danced.                मी नाचले(mI nAchale)
We smiled.                          आम्ही / आपण हसलो(AmhI / ApaN hasalo)
You (male) sat.                   तू बसलास(tU basalAs)
You (female) sat.                 तू बसलीस(tU basalIs)
You (Plural) walked               तुम्ही चाललात(tumhI chAlalAt)
He moved.                           तो हलला  (to halalA )
She shouted.                        ती ओरडली (tI oraDalI )
It turned.                             ते वळले (te vaLale )
They(plural of he) met.         ते भेटले (te bheTale )
They(plural of she) met         त्या भेटल्या (tyA bheTalyA )
They(plural of it) met            ती भेटली (tI bheTalI )


Exceptions :-
Please pay more attention towards the verbs बघ  (bagh ) , सांग ( sAMg ), कर (kar ) , खा (khA ) etc.
In past tense verb itself is changed first. And suffixes are added to these changed verbs.
e.g as per above rules "He saw movie" will be "त्याने मूव्ही बघला " ( tyAne mUvhI baghalA ). But in simple past tense the verb"बघ" changes to  "बघित". so instead of बघला  we say बघितला ( baghitalA ).
Similarly other changes.

As we will see ahead, the Perfect tenses depend on the sentence creation in simple past tense. So these form  s only used in perfect tenses also.

Go through below table  :-


Verb in english
Verb in Marathi
Forms in simple past tense
as per above rule.
But DO NOT USE these forms
Changed verb
Forms in simple past tense as per rule.
But USE these forms
See
बघ
बघला / बघली /बघले 

बघित
बघितला / बघितली /बघितले
(baghitalA / baghitalI /baghitale )
Tell
सांग
सांगला / सांगली / सांगले
सांगित
सांगितला सांगितली सांगितले
( sAMgitalA / sAMgitalI  / sAMgitale )
Do
कर
करला /करली / करले
के
केला / केली / केले
( kelA / kelI / kele )

Eat
खा
खाला / खाली /खाले
खाल्
खाल्ला  / खाल्ली / खाल्ले
( khAllA / khAllI / khAlle )
Ask for
माग
मागला / मागली / मागले 

मागित
मागितला / मागितली / मागितले 
(mAgitalA mAgitalI mAgitale )
Drink
पी
पीला / पीली / पीले

प्याय
प्यायला / प्यायली / प्यायले
(pyAyalA / pyAyalI pyAyale )
Come
ये
येला / येली / येले

etc.
आला / आली / आले
( AlA / AlI / Ale   )

etc.
Sing
गा  
गाला / गाली / गाले

etc.
गाय
गायला / गायली / गायले
( gayalA gayalI /  gaya le   )

etc.

Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rou-a3SYik


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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15 comments:

  1. Thank you for this guide of Marathi tenses' declensions !

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Welcome to my blog. And all the best for learning Marathi. Mail me on learnmarathifast@gmail.com so that I can inform you whenever i add new lesson like i inform other students.

      Thanks Anonymous !!
      Won't it sound better if I had known your name
      - Kaushik

      Delete
    2. - Yash Agrawal

      Delete
  2. Hello Sir
    In the table of suffixes, the suffix for ' They (Plural of He) /Those (m.) /These (m.)' is given as ' ली ', but in the example mentioned below and also in the video, the suffix used is ' ले ' [ते भेटले (te bheTale )]
    Kindly clarify.
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Uttara,
      It is ' ले '. I rectified mistake. Thanks for bringing it to my notice.
      I am happy to see that you are studying Marathi seriously and in deep. So I am curious what motivated you to to learn Marathi ? What is you mother-tongue and where are you from ?
      You can mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  3. Sir, 'to come' doesn't have an objective... that is, it's intransitive.... How can it be in that list of aala aali ale, shouldn't it be there in Mi aalo etc.

    Milind Chakraborty

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Milind, are you talking table at the end of lesson ? That table indicates change in root of verbs. Table is not limited only to one kind of verbs.

      Delete
  4. Hi...what about for mixed group of people? For example for boys and girls together, what suffix to use?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "Masculine pluaral" way to be used. Can you try few example and try translations and give here.

      May i know your name plz ? Are you learning Marathi from my blog?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    2. Yes, I am learning Marathi. I always like to learn Grammar first, that is my nature. I found your blog to be the BEST, very thorough and exhaustive. You have taken pains to cover a lot. I was raised in Mumbai...so...I am Sundar Viswanathan. Thanks...As to examples will come to it later..I am going through some of your lessons.

      Delete
    3. Hi Sundar, Thanks for comments and details.
      I am happy that you found blog useful.

      I would like to know more about your Marathi learning and experience with my blog. Would you mind sending me mail on learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    4. Hi...I am getting back to it soon...I have a question. Somewhere you have talked about using "boltoy" like "me sundar boltoy" etc...when is that used and where have you explained it? Thx...sundar

      Delete
    5. "boltoy" is short form of "bolato ahe" which is present continuous tense for verb "bolaNe".

      So refer lesson related to present continuous tense.

      I hope this helps, otherwise do not hesitate to ask again.

      Waiting for your mail,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  5. I could conclude a boy can say I Like You to a girl in two ways.
    1: मी तुला आवडतो where मी is subject who does work of liking the object तुला. And this actually represent I Like You or मैं तुमको पसन्द करता हूँ
    2: मला तु आवडतेस where तु ( actual object) becomes subject as happens in passive voice and आवडतेस the verb is written according to तु ( female ) . And this translates to more like You are liked by me or मुझे तु पसन्द है
    Which one is correct ? Please explain with more examples and in detail.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Kailash,
      The verb "To like" has bit different sentence structure in Marathi than English. It is discussed in detail in separate lesson
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/06/using-to-like.html

      Please visit and let me know if that answers your query.

      Bye the way, are you learning marathi using my blog ? I would like to know more about your Marathi learning and experience with my blog. Would you mind sending me mail on learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete