Present/Past/Future Perfect Tense in Marathi

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Before you go ahead learning Perfect tense make sure you have understood simple past tense correctly.
Because all these tense use sentences from simple past and just add form of to Be to make it perfect.

If the verb requires noun then the form of To Be i.e. असणे(asaNe) is decided based on noun. Like Simple Past tense.
Otherwise it is decided based on subject /doer of action

So do revise simple past tense.

Let us go into details.

Rule 1) Sentences with Verb having noun/objective
Sentence formation logic is:-


Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. असणे(“asaNe”) as per gender and multiplicity of noun and tense
         
Take sentence I have/had/will have opened box.
Its simple past tense is I opened box which will be translated as मी खोका उघडला( mI khokA ughaDalA )

Now the objective of the sentence is Box. Which is masculine singular (similar to he ) .

Referring the chart for simple past tense of असणे(asaNe)  for He , the form is होता(hotA)
So to make sentence past perfect we will append होता(hotA)  to sentence of simple past tense

I opened box -> I had opened box
मी खोका उघडला -> मी खोका उघडला होता (mI khokA ughaDalA hotA )

To make the sentence present perfect, we will refer chart for simple present tense of असणे(asaNe) for He. The form is  आहे( Ahe )
So to make sentence present perfect we will append  आहे(Ahe ) to sentence of simple past tense

I opened box -> I have opened box
मी खोका उघडला -> मी खोका उघडला आहे  ( mI khokA ughaDalA Ahe )

To make the sentence future perfect, we will refer chart for simple future tense of असणे(asaNe) for He. The form is असेल (asel )
So to make sentence present perfect we will append  असेल (asel) to sentence of simple past tense

I opened box -> I will have opened box
मी खोका उघडला -> मी खोका उघडला असेल


Rule 2) Sentences with Verb without having noun/objective
Sentence formation logic is:-

Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. असणे(“asaNe”) as per gender and multiplicity of Subject and tense
         
e.g. I(male) have/had/will have spoken
Here the verb speak does not have noun/objective.
Its subjective is I(male) i.e. मी( mI )
Its simple past tense is I(male) spoke which will be translated as मी बोललो( mI bolalo)

Referring the chart for simple past tense of असणे(asaNe) for I(male), the form is होतो (hoto)
So to make sentence past perfect we will append होतो (hoto) to sentence of simple past tense

I spokeà I had spoken
मी बोललो -> मी बोललो होतो ( mI bolalo hoto )

To make the sentence present perfect, we will refer chart for simple present tense of असणे(asaNe) for I(male). The form is आहे( Ahe )
So to make sentence present perfect we will append  आहे(Ahe ) to sentence of simple past tense

I spoke -> I have spoken
मी बोललो -> मी बोललो आहे mI bolalo Ahe)

To make the sentence future perfect, we will refer chart for simple future tense of असणे(asaNe) for I (male) . The form is असेन ( asen )
So to make sentence present perfect we will append असेन ( asen ) to sentence of simple past tense

I spoke -> I will have spoken 
मी बोललो -> मी बोललो असेन mI bolalo asen)



So simple !!! Provided simple past tense sentence formation is simple for you :) :)
So as to reduce your efforts of referring charts for form of to be I have combined them here for all three tenses

Pronoun in English
Pronoun

in

Marathi
Form of असणे
(“asaNe”) in Simple Present tense 
Form of

असणे
(asaNe) in Simple Past Tense
Form of असणे
(asaNe) in simple future tense
I (male)
मी
आहे Ahe
होतो hoto
असेन asen



I (female)
मी
आहे Ahe
होते hote
असेन asen


we
आम्ही
आहोत Ahot
होतो hoto
असू  asU
we ( listener including)
आपण
आहोत Ahot
होतो hoto
असू  asU 
You (singular male)
तू
आहेस Ahes
होतास hotAs
असशील

asashIl
You (singular female)
तू
आहेस Ahes
होतीस hotIs
असशील

asashIl
You (plural)
तुम्ही
आहात AhAt
होता hotA /
होता  hotAt
असाल 
asAl
He / That (m.) / This (m.)  
तो / तो / हा
आहे Ahe
होता hotA
असेल
asel
She / That (f.)/ This (f.) 
ती / ती / ही
आहे Ahe
होती hotI
असेल

asel
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
ते / ते / हे
आहे Ahe
होते hote
असेल
asel


They (Plural of He)  /Those (m.) /These (m.)
ते / ते / हे
आहेत Ahet
होती hotI
असतील
asatIl
They (Plural of She) / Those (f.) / These (f.) 
त्या / त्या / ह्या
आहेत Ahet
होत्या hotyA
असतील
asatIl
They (Plural of it) / Those (n.) / These (n.)
ती / ती / ही
आहेत Ahet
होती hotI
असतील
asatIl
Example 1)
She has/had/will have opened door       

Step 1) Get simple past tense sentence
              She opened door -> तीने दरवाजा उघडला ((tIne daravAjA ughaDalA)

Step 2) Find out correct form of to Be and append.
Note:- Verb has objective door which is He


She opened door -> She has opened door
तीने दरवाजा उघडला-> तीने दरवाजा उघडला आहे (tIne daravAjA ughaDalA Ahe)

She opened door -> She had opened door
तीने दरवाजा उघडला-> तीने दरवाजा उघडला होता (tIne daravAjA ughaDalA hotA)

She opened door -> She will have opened door
तीने दरवाजा उघडला-> तीने दरवाजा उघडला असेल (tIne daravAjA ughaDalA asel)

Note :- For "you singular" i.e. तू (tU ) and "you plural" i.e तुम्ही (tumhI ) ending स(s) and त(t) of simple past tense form is omitted respectively. 

Example 2)
You(female) have/had/will have danced 

Step 1) Get simple past tense sentence
              You (female) danced-> तू नाचलीस ( tU nAchalIs )
Step 2) Find out correct form of to Be and append.
Note:- Verb does NOT have objective. So go for the form as per subject i.e. You ( female)


You (female) danced-> You (female) have danced
तू नाचलीस(tU nAchalIs ) -> तू नाचली आहेस (tU nAchalI Ahes )

You (female) danced-> You (female) had danced
तू नाचलीस (tU nAchalIs ) -> तू नाचली होतीस (tU nAchalI hotIs )

You (female) danced-> You (female) will have danced
तू नाचलीस(tU nAchalIs ) -> तू नाचली असशील (tU nAchalI asashIl )

Note:- while making Perfect tense sentence the ending (s) of नाचलीस is not used.

Example 3)
You(plural) have/had/will have danced 

Step 1) Get simple past tense sentence
              You (plural) danced-> तुम्ही नाचलात  ( tumhI nAchalAt )
Step 2) Find out correct form of to Be and append.
Note:- Verb does NOT have objective. So go for the form as per subject i.e. You ( female)

You (plural) danced-> You (plural) have danced
तुम्ही नाचलात  ( tumhI nAchalAt ) -> तुम्ही नाचला आहात ( tumhI nAchalA AhAt ) 

You (plural) danced-> You (plural) had danced
तुम्ही नाचलात  ( tumhI nAchalAt ) -> तुम्ही नाचला होता/होतात (tumhI nAchalA hotA/hotAt) 

You (plural) danced-> You (plural) will have danced
तुम्ही नाचलात  ( tumhI nAchalAt ) -> तुम्ही नाचला असाल ( tumhI nAchalAt asAl)

Note:- while making Perfect tense sentence the ending (t) of नाचलात (nAchalAt) is not used.


There is second style of saying sentence in past perfect tense. Refer below post for it :-
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2013/03/past-perfect-tense-second-style-learn-marathi.html


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-AuMYv0SEs


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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23 comments:

  1. Pls edit this page with the correct Example in English...

    You (female) danced-> She has opened door
    तू नाचलीस -> तू नाचली आहेस
    You (female) danced-> She had opened door
    तू नाचलीस -> तू नाचली होतीस
    You (female) danced-> She will have opened door
    तू नाचलीस -> तू नाचली असशील

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Rectified. Thanks for bringing it to notice.
      i would like to hear more suggestions/feedback.
      You may mail to learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  2. Dear, i'd like to know about 'tumhi' so ppl say 'tumhi bolalat ahat' 'tumhi bolalat hota' 'tumhi bolalat asal' right? because according to all the rules, the past participles end in vowels (lo, le, la, li, lya) only except for 'lat'. thank you :D

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Added example and also made the corresponding rule more clear. Please check if it answers your query.

      By the way, I really appreciate your intent and ability to learn the things in detail. Keep it up.

      Delete
  3. Hi
    For Rule 1 example - as per chart the form of 'asane' for simple past is 'hoto'. So shouldn't the past perfect example for 'I had opened box' become 'mee khoka ugadla hoto'
    I am a beginner so please correct me if I misunderstood.
    thanks
    Mou Chakraborty

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. form of 'asane' is to be selected based on geneder and multiplicity of object. So it wil be "hotA".
      Please go through rule again and especially the visit lesson of simple past tense again.

      Delete
    2. Right but as per chart the form of asane for the pronoun 'I' is hoto and not 'hota'.
      Hota is the form of asane for the pronoun 'he'.
      So if I want to say 'I had opened the box' shouldn't 'hoto' be used.

      Delete
    3. It seems you have not read the explanation correctly. It is written that

      "Please read the explanation again. I have written " Take sentence “I have/had/will have opened box”.
      Its simple past tense is “I opened box” which will be translated as “मी खोका उघडला”( mI khokA ughaDalA )
      Now the objective of the sentence is Box. Which is masculine singular (similar to “he” ) .
      Referring the chart for “simple past” tense of असणे(“asaNe”) for He , the form is होता(hotA)
      So to make sentence past perfect we will append होता(hotA) to sentence of simple past tense
      I opened box -> I had opened box
      मी खोका उघडला -> मी खोका उघडला होता (mI khokA ughaDalA hotA )"

      Delete
    4. Finally got it - thanks so much.

      Delete
  4. Or Jar tuzykade aaj paise aaste tar hyache translet kase hoiel

    ReplyDelete
  5. Replies
    1. Please refer
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/sentence-using-if-then.html
      This may answer your question.

      Delete
  6. Hi, you wrote:
    'Rule 2) Sentences with Verb without having noun/objective
    Sentence formation logic is:-
    Sentence in “simple past” form of to Be i.e. असणे(“asaNe”) according to Objective and tense'

    My question is about the last line. Will the form of असणे(“asaNe”) be according to the 'objective', as you wrote? Should not the verb take the gender of the subject given that there is no object in these sort of sentences?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks a lot for pointing out mistake. I have rectified it. Please check if it sound correct now. Sorry for confusion I created.

      May I know your name please. I would like to hear more suggestions/feedback and about your Marathi learning. Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  7. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes it was a typo.
      I know you. It was not clear from your blog profile name. So every time I see "anonymous" or unknown name; I ask who is it ?

      Delete
  8. Replies
    1. Thanks. Are you learning Marathi or helping someone learn ?

      Delete
  9. teeNe What is that
    u didnt elaborate about Ne here ....please let me knw what is Ne here

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Shabaj,
      As mentioned in the beginning of the lesson "before you go ahead learning “Perfect tense” make sure you have understood “simple past tense” correctly"

      Once you visit that lesson you will understand forms like "tine","tyane" etc.

      By the way are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  10. Dear Sir,
    I'd like to clarify a little bit
    so with तुम्ही, normally the past tense of असणे is होता, right?
    e.g. तुम्ही काल घरी होता का?
    but in Perfect, we could say both होता and होतात?
    plz tell me if i understood right.
    Thank you

    ReplyDelete