Marathi Barakahadi : Symbols for vowels with consonants

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In previous lesson we have studied symbols in Devanagari script for consonants and vowels.

Like in any language, vowels can be added to consonants to create combined sound.
In English we just right letters one after other; and based on the word pronunciation say them together.
e.g.
meat ; bit ; hat. 
Here "ea","i","a" are pronounced along with preceding consonent.

In Marathi we do not write vowels as it is when they are to be combined with consonant. There are different symbols  for each vowel, which is added to consonant symbol to indicate combined sound

There are twelve main vowels. Hence this chart is called "bArAkhaDI"; where "bArA" means twelve.

1) Adding अ(a) to consonant has no effect. So there is no change in symbol
In this blog it is denoted as small a i.e. "a"

2) Adding आ(A) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line.
e.g. This vertical line is called काना (kAnA )
क(k) + आ(A) = का (kA)
ब(b) + आ(A) = बा  (bA)
In this blog it is denoted as capital a i.e. "A"

3) Adding इ(i) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line and a curve BEFORE consonant.
This "vertical line and a curve" is called as पहिली वेलांटी  (pahilI velAMTI ).
क(k) + इ(i) = कि(ki)
ब(b) + इ(i) = बि(bi)
In this blog it is denoted as small i i.e. "i"

4) Adding ई(I) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line and a curve AFTER consonant
This "vertical line and a curve" is called as दुसरी वेलांटी  (dusarI velAMTI ).
क(k) + ई(I) = की(kI)
ब(b) + (I) = बी(bI)
In this blog it is denoted as capital i i.e. "I"


5) Adding उ(u) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. Curve is pointing to left
This curve is called पहिला उकार (pahilA ukAr )
क(k) + उ(u) = कु(ku)
ब(b) + उ(u) = बु(bu)
Exception :- for  र(r) curve is added at side रु(ru)
In this blog it is denoted as small u  i.e. "u"
6) Adding ऊ(U) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. Curve is pointing to right.
This curve is called दुसरा उकार (dusarA ukAr )
क(k) + ऊ(U)  = कू(kU)
ब(b) +  ऊ(U) = बू(bU)
Exception :- for  र(r) curve is added at side रू(rU)
In this blog it is denoted as capital u i.e. "U"
7) Adding ए(e) to consonant is denoted by a  slanting line above consonant.
This slanting line is called मात्रा(mAtrA)
क(k) + ए(e)  = के(ke)
ब(b) +  ए(e) = बे(be)
In this blog it is denoted as small e i.e. "e"
8) Adding ऐ(ai) to consonant is denoted by a  TWO slanting lines above consonant.
These slanting lines are called दोन मात्रा(don mAtrA). Where दोन (don) means two.
क(k) + ऐ(ai)  = कै(kai)
ब(b) +  ऐ(ai) = बै(bai)
In this blog it is denoted as "ai"
Note for native Hindi speakers :- read the section "Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi" at the end of this lesson.


9) Adding ओ(o) to consonant is denoted by a  vertical line after consonant along with one slanting line above consonant.  i.e. one  काना  (kAnA) and one मात्रा(mAtrA) 
क(k) + ओ(o)  = को(ko)
ब(b) +  ओ(o) = बो(bo)
In this blog it is denoted as small o i.e. "o"

10) Adding औ(au) to consonant is denoted by a  vertical line after consonant along with TWO slanting lines above consonant.  i.e. one  काना  (kAnA) and two मात्रा(mAtrA) 
क(k) + औ(au)  = कौ(kau)
ब(b) +  औ(au) = बौ(bau)
In this blog it is denoted as "au"

Note for native Hindi speakers :- read the section "Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi" at the end of this blog

11) Adding अं(aM) to consonant is denoted by a  giving a dot on consonant. 
क(k) + अं(aM)  = कं(kM)
ब(b) +  अं(aM) = बं(bM)
In this blog it is denoted as capital m "M"
Fore more details on pronunciation of anusvar refer
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/pronunciation-of-anusvar.html

12) Adding अः(aH) to consonant is denoted by a two dots after consonant. 
क(k) + अः(aH)  = कः(kH)
ब(b) +  अः(aH) = बः(bH)
In this blog it is denoted as capital h i.e. "H"

Traditional "barakahdi" ends above. But there are few more vowels which can be added with consonant they are as follows :-

13) Adding अ‍ॅ(~a) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant.
क(k) + अ‍ॅ(~a)  = कॅ(k~a)
ब(b) +  अ‍ॅ(~a) = बॅ(b~a)
In this blog it is denoted as "~a"
14) Adding ऑ(~0) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant  along with vertical line after consonant. 
क(k) + ऑ(~o)  = कॉ(k~o)
ब(b) +  ऑ(~o) = बॉ(b~o)
In this blog it is denoted as "~o"
15) When you want to say a consonant just half it is denoted by giving a slanting line below consonant
क्‌
ब्‌


Listen this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1ePGpObol0


Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi
Pronunciation of double Matra in Hindi is equal to that of crescent in Marathi. 
e.g.
English Word
Written in Hindi as
Written in Marathi as
Stock
स्टौक  (sTauk  )
स्टॉक  (sT~ok  )
Block
ब्लौक  (blauk  )
ब्लॉक  (bl~ok  )
Rock
रौक (rauk )
रॉक (r~ok )
Mat
मैट (maiT )
मॅट (m~aT )
Bat
बैट (baiT )
बॅट (b~aT )
Rat
रैट (raiT )
रॅट (r~aT )

Listen about this difference at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_qtbx_tfxs

or
https://soundcloud.com/kaushik-lele/double-matra-pronunciation-learn-marathi


List of symbols for all consonants with vowel following above rules:- 
You can listen them all at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztW4T4R3SDw


क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं कः कॅ कॉ क्‌
ख खा खि खी खु खू खे खै खो खौ खं खः खॅ खॉ ख्‌
ग गा गि गी गु गू गे गै गो गौ गं गः गॅ गॉ ग्‌
घ घा घि घी घु घू घे घै घो घौ घं घः घॅ घॉ घ्‌
च चा चि ची चु चू चे चै चो चौ चं चः चॅ चॉ च्‌
छ छा छि छी छु छू छे छै छो छौ छं छः छॅ छॉ छ्‌
ज जा जि जी जु जू जे जै जो जौ जं जः जॅ जॉ ज्‌
झ झा झि झी झु झू झे झै झो झौ झं झः झॅ झॉ झ्‌
ट टा टि टी टु टू टे टै टो टौ टं टः टॅ टॉ ट्‌
ठ ठा ठि ठी ठु ठू ठे ठै ठो ठौ ठं ठः ठॅ ठॉ ठ्‌
ड डा डि डी डु डू डे डै डो डौ डं डः डॅ डॉ ड्‌
ढ ढा ढि ढी ढु ढू ढे ढै ढो ढौ ढं ढः ढॅ ढॉ ढ्‌
ण णा णि णी णु णू णे णै णो णौ णं णः णॅ णॉ ण्‌
त ता ति ती तु तू ते तै तो तौ तं तः तॅ तॉ त्‌
थ था थि थी थु थू थे थै थो थौ थं थः थॅ थॉ थ्‌
द दा दि दी दु दू दे दै दो दौ दं दः दॅ दॉ द्‌
ध धा धि धी धु धू धे धै धो धौ धं धः धॅ धॉ ध्‌
न ना नि नी नु नू ने नै नो नौ नं नः नॅ नॉ न्‌
प पा पि पी पु पू पे पै पो पौ पं पः पॅ पॉ प्‌
फ फा फि फी फु फू फे फै फो फौ फं फः फॅ फॉ फ्‌
ब बा बि बी बु बू बे बै बो बौ बं बः बॅ बॉ ब्‌
भ भा भि भी भु भू भे भै भो भौ भं भः भॅ भॉ भ्‌
म मा मि मी मु मू मे मै मो मौ मं मः मॅ मॉ म्‌
य या यि यी यु यू ये यै यो यौ यं यः यॅ यॉ य्‌
र रा रि री रु रू रे रै रो रौ रं रः रॅ रॉ र्‌
ल ला लि ली लु लू ले लै लो लौ लं लः लॅ लॉ ल्‌
व वा वि वी वु वू वे वै वो वौ वं वः वॅ वॉ व्‌
श शा शि शी शु शू शे शै शो शौ शं शः शॅ शॉ श्‌
ष षा षि षी षु षू षे षै षो षौ षं षः षॅ षॉ ष्‌
स सा सि सी सु सू से सै सो सौ सं सः सॅ सॉ स्‌
ह हा हि ही हु हू हे है हो हौ हं हः हॅ हॉ ह्‌
ळ ळा ळि ळी ळु ळू ळे ळै ळो ळौ ळं ळः ळॅ ळॉ ळ्‌
क्ष क्षा क्षि क्षी क्षु क्षू क्षे क्षै क्षो क्षौ क्षं क्षः क्षॅ क्षॉ क्ष्‌
ज्ञ ज्ञा ज्ञि ज्ञी ज्ञु ज्ञू ज्ञे ज्ञै ज्ञो ज्ञौ ज्ञं ज्ञः ज्ञॅ ज्ञॉ ज्ञ्‌


***************************************************************
Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
***************************************************************

19 comments:

  1. this is very useful for those who want to learn the marathi, thanks for sharing this information.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Amol,
      I visited your blog(http://ghathimarathi.blogspot.in/). It also quite interesting and informative. Your collection of "mhani" is simply awesome. When I would add any lesson about "mhani and vakprachar", I will surely give reference to your site.

      Would you like to give link to my blog (http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/) on your blog's Barakhadi page. Or you may add a new post about learn Marathi and give link there. So visitors of your blog who are interested in more details can come here.

      Also please mail me on learnmarathifast@gmail.com so that we can discuss further.

      Delete
  2. Thank you Mr.Lele for sharing such a useful blog. These are the best lessons I could find on internet, for learning Marathi. I find them very easy to understand since you have planned the lessons in a such a proper sequence. Learning Marathi has become fun now, with these blogs and your videos.
    Thank you once again.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Uttara, thanka a lot your comment and appreciation. Such comments motivate me.
      I would like hear more of feedback from you. Also I would like to know what motivated you to learn Marathi. So can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  3. I wanted to learn marathi for long time. Been in pune for 2 years still couldn't get started. You blog is really awesome. just what i needed. Thanks a lot !!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Amit,
      thanks for your comments and appreciation. I am happy that you found the blog useful.
      I would like hear more of feedback from you. and more about your Marathi learning. So can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com.

      Waiting for your reply,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  4. Thank you so much. This blog is very useful as I am a foreigner and I married an Indian, our son has been studying in Mumbai since Jr kg. my husband lives abroad, n so it's a struggle for me to keep up with my sons Marathi homework as he is now in 5th standard. Thank you so much for making this a little easier.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for your comments and appreciation. I am happy that you found the blog useful.
      I would like hear more of feedback from you. and more about your Marathi learning. So can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com.
      - Kaushik

      Delete
  5. lots of thanks
    its very valuable information given by Kaushik

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for your comments. I would like to hear more feedback from you. and more about your Marathi learning. So can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com.
      - Kaushik

      Delete
  6. kana wa matra ,he kuthe wa kadhi waprai cha yachat help pahije hoti ? va dirgha wa rasva velanti kashi olkhay chi ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Listen to video at given YouTube link. Let me know if that answers your question.

      Giving link here again
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1ePGpObol0

      By the way, may I know your name please ? Are you learning Marathi using my blogs ?
      - Kaushik

      Delete
  7. Hello sir i am Sanjib .i want to learn marathi. I know hindi (read write speak).
    Next month I will have exam in mahatransco so sir old suggest me about the marathi language test in exam

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sanjib,
      I do not know about exam syllabus/question pattern. So can not comment on that perspective.

      But if you want to learn Marathi language in general, you are at correct place. Many Indians and even foreigners have successfully learned Marathi using my blog. So you can be another success story.

      Let me know if you start learning Marathi using my blog.

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  8. Sir.mrathi me first velanti an second velanti sbdo me kaise use hote hi....

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "kaise" matlab ? I could not understand your question.

      If you know Hindi then it is same in Marathi.

      May I know your name plz. Are you learning Marathi using my blog ?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
  9. hi! i have a question. Question is that i want to use right velanti or ukaar in words.FOr eg. FOR THE WORD BILEE which velanti to use either ि or ी. PLzzzzzz helppp

    ReplyDelete
  10. Replies
    1. It depends on word pronunciation.
      That doesn't sound a marathi word

      Delete