Adjectives in Marathi

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Like in English we have adjectives in Marathi, to describe more about noun/pronoun.

Rule 1) In Marathi usage of adjective can change according to the gender and multiplicity of noun.
Genrally those masculine adjective which ends with vowel (A) change as per gender and multiplicity.

If masculine adjective ends with vowel (A) then corresponding feminine ends with (I) and neuter ends with  (e) .

e.g. Black -> काळा (kALA)
Black horse -> काळा घोडा (kALA  ghoDA )
Black chair ->  काळी खुर्ची (kALI khurchI )
Black page  -> काळे पान ( kALe pAn )

In marathi Horse (घोडा ) is masculine , chair (खुर्ची) is feminine and page (पान ) is neuter. So the adjective was changed to  काळा, काळी, काळे respectively.

For plurals they will be
Black horses -> काळे  घोडे (kALe  ghoDe)
Black chairs ->  काळ्या  खुर्च्या (kALyA  khurchyA )
Black pages -> काळी पाने  (kALI pAne )

We have already seen the rules for making plurals depnding on gender and ending vowel. Same rules are applied here to both adjective and noun.

Rule 2 ) Other adjectives genrally remain same in all genders.

Few examples of adjectives are given below. You will learn more adjectives as you will read Marathi more and more
Adjective in English
masculine singluar
feminine singular
neuter
singular
masculine plural
feminine
plural
neuter
plural
good
चांगला (chAMgalA)
चांगली (chAMgalI)
चांगले (chAMgale)
चांगले (chAMgale)
चांगल्या
(chAMgalyA)
चांगली chAMgalI
big
मोठा (moThA)
मोठी (moThI)
मोठे
( moThe )
मोठे
( moThe )
मोठ्या 
(moThyA )
मोठी (moThI)
fat
जाडा (jADA)
जाडी (jADI)
जाडे (jADe)
जाडे (jADe)
जाड्या ( jADyA)
जाडी (jADI)
long
                                                       लांब (lAMb)
wide
                                                        रुंद (ruMd)

 Rule 3) When adjective ending with vowel (A) is used along with preposition, its form changes same as their corresponding noun. i.e. there is सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) of adjectives in Marathi for adjective ending with vowel (A).
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) created by appending  या (yA). See below example to understand it clearly.

Good horse  -> चांगला घोडा   (chAMgalA ghoDA )
For good horse --> चांगल्या घोड्या साठी (chAMgalyA ghoDyA sAThI )
See the “चांगला” is changed to “चांगल्या” same as “घोडा” changed to  घोड्या”.

Good chair -> चांगली खुर्ची
For good chair -> चांगल्या खुर्ची साठी

Easy exam -> सोपी परीक्षा  (sopI parIkShA )
After easy exam ->  सोप्या परीक्षेनंतर  ( sopyA parIkShenaMtar )


Rule 4) Other adjectives generally reamin same even when used with preposition
Red horse :- लाल घोडा  (lAl ghoDA )
For red horse :- लाल घोड्यासाठी ( lAl ghoDyAsAThI )
Here “घोडा” changed to  घोड्या” but adjective “लाल” remained unchanged.


Beautiful drawing ->  सुंदर चित्र  (suMdar chitr )
About beautiful drawing  -> सुंदर चित्राबद्दल ( suMdar chitrAbaddal)


Rule 5) Verb as objective
In English we use phrases like “Speaking Doll”, “Talking book” etc. 
Here form of verbs speak, talk are used as kind of adjective. 
In Marathi same can be achieved by appending णारा (NArA )/ णारी (NArI) / णारे (NAre ) to verb depending on gender ie. Masculine, feminied and neuter respectively

Examples :-  
Masculine
Talking boy     :- बोलणारा मुलगा (bolaNArA mulagA)
Rotating fan    :- फिरणारा पंखा (phiraNArA paMkhA)

Feminine
Talking girls   :- बोलणारी मुलगी (bolaNArI mulagI)
Moving chair    :- हलणारी खुर्ची  (halaNArI khurchI)
Flying saucer   :- उडणारी तबकडी  (uDaNArI tabakaDI  )

Neuter
Talking book    :- बोलणारे पुस्तक ( bolaNAre pustak )
Moving tree      :- हलणारे झाड  (halaNAre jhAD) 

Similarily for past-tense verb i.e seen passge, unseen passage, rotten food etc. we will append लेला (lelA) / लेली (lelI  )/ लेले (lele)  to verb depending on gender ie. Masculine, feminied and neuter respectively.

Examples :- 
Masculine
Talked boy     :- बोललेला मुलगा (bolaNArA mulagA)
Rotated fan    :- फिरलेला पंखा (phiraNArA paMkhA)

Feminine
Talked girls   :- बोललेली मुलगी (bolaNArI mulagI)
Moved chair    :- हललेली खुर्ची  (halaNArI khurchI)
Flyed saucer   :- उडलेली तबकडी  (uDaNArI tabakaDI  )

Neuter
Talked book    :- बोललेले पुस्तक ( bolaNAre pustak )
Moved tree      :- हललेले झाड  (halaNAre jhAD) 


Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQ5T_rsghLo
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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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2 comments:

  1. In marathi Horse (घोडा ) is masculine , chair (खुर्ची) is feminine and page (काळे) is neuter. So the adjective was changed to काळा, काळी, काळे respectively.

    Here for "page" marathi word should be "pAn". I have one doubt that Marathi word "pAn" is used for "page" or "leaf"

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks for showing it. I have updated. Yes "pAn" means both "page" and "leaf"

    ReplyDelete